The Scott Kelly One-Year Mission
The Scott Kelly One-Year Mission focused on seven categories of research. In March 2015, American Astronaut Scott Kelly and Russian Cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko began collaborative investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). They resided on the ISS for nearly a year, which is twice as long as typical U.S. missions. These investigations yielded beneficial knowledge on the medical, psychological and biomedical challenges faced by astronauts during long-duration spaceflight.
The Twins Study encompassed ten separate investigators who coordinated and shared all data and analysis as one large, integrated research team. The study focused on four categories of research split into 10 investigations to evaluate identical twin astronauts Scott and Mark Kelly. These investigations provided broader insight into the subtle effects and changes that may occur in spaceflight as compared to Earth. This was done by studying two individuals with the same genetics, residing in different environments for nearly one year.