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Risk of Toxic Exposure

astronauts working in ISS
ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut and Expedition 67 Flight Engineer Samantha Cristoforetti works inside the International Space Station’s Unity module reconfiguring components for the Solid Fuel Ignition and Extinction investigation that explores fire growth and fire safety techniques in space.

Safe, breathable air is essential for crew health. Human spaceflight has involved toxicological events ranging in severity from trivial to life-threatening. Toxic exposure to chemical contaminants can originate from environmental system leaks, payload leaks, pyrolysis of polymeric materials, off-gassing of polymeric materials, use of utility compounds, propellant entry, microbial products, and human metabolism.

To ensure crew safety, these risks are mitigated by preventive measures aimed at reducing or eliminating toxic exposure events as well as by monitoring and intervention post-release to minimize impacts to crew and reduce impacts to crew health and performance as well as long-term health consequences.

Boeing’s Orbital Flight Test-2 (OFT-2) is Starliner’s second uncrewed flight test to the ISS
Boeing team members don hazmat suits as they prepare for the landing of Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner spacecraft at White Sands Missile Range’s Space Harbor, Wednesday, May 25, 2022, in New Mexico. Boeing’s Orbital Flight Test-2 (OFT-2) is Starliner’s second uncrewed flight test to the International Space Station as part of NASA’s Commercial Crew Program. OFT-2 serves as an end-to-end test of the system’s capabilities.

Directed Acyclic Graph Files

+ DAG File Information (HSRB Home Page)

+ Toxic Exposure Risk DAG and Narrative (PDF)

Toxic Exposure Risk DAG Code (TXT)



Last Updated
Dec 04, 2023
Robert E. Lewis