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2.0    Fundamentals of Systems Engineering 
2.1    The Common Technical Processes and the SE Engine
2.2    An Overview of the SE Engine by Project Phase   
2.3    Example of Using the SE Engine
2.4    Distinctions between Product Verification and Product Validation  
2.5    Cost Effectiveness Considerations 
2.6    Human Systems Integration (HSI) in the SE Process 
2.7    Competency Model for Systems Engineers 

As noted at the beginning of NPR 7123.1, the “systems approach is applied to all elements of a system (i.e., hardware, software, human systems integration. In short, the systems engineering approach must equally address and integrate these three key elements: hardware, software, and human systems integration).” Therefore, the human element is something that integration and systems engineering processes must address. The definition of “system” in NPR 7123.1 is inclusive; i.e., a system is “the combination of elements that function together to produce the capability required to meet a need. The elements include all hardware, software, equipment, facilities, personnel, processes, and procedures needed for this purpose.” For additional information and guidance on his, refer to Section 2.6 of the NASA Expanded Guidance for Systems Engineering at