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Advanced In Situ and Operando Characterization of Batteries Under Ultra-low Temperature Conditions

Kelsey Hatzell
Princeton University

Rechargeable batteries used in solar-powered orbital missions and Mars surface missions need to be engineered for extreme environmental conditions. Depending on the mission, the battery system may be exposed large vibration environments, radiation, and large temperature and pressure swings. The primary limitation with the current state-of-the-art is the temperature range (-20CC to 40C). This temperature limit is related to the liquid electrolyte’s freezing and boiling point.  Future missions require novel systems that can endure freeze-thaw cycles. This proposals intend to examine the fundamental science behind degradation mechanisms in batteries which are exposed to large temperature swings. In particular, this proposal seeks to examine the key limitations with wide-temperature range lithium ion batteries: interfacial transformations using advanced electrochemistry diagnostic tools and x-ray imaging.

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