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Tori Hoehler

Tori Hoehler

Research Scientist

Division: Space Science and Astrobiology Division (ST)

Branch: Exobiology Branch (STX)


Phone: (650) 604-1355

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Professional Biography

Co-Lead, Network for Life Detection (2018-2022)

Steering Committee, Network for Ocean Worlds (2018-present)

Director, Ames Center for Life Detection (2017-present)

Europa Lander Science Definition Team (2016-2017)

Europa Science Advisory Group (2012-2014)

Europa Clipper Science Definition Team, Astrobiology Group Lead (2011-2012)

Mars Science Laboratory Collaborating Research Scientist (2010-2014)

Research Scientist, NASA Ames Research Center (2001-present)

National Research Council Research Associate (1998 to 2001)

Ocean Drilling Program Participating Scientist, Leg 164 (1995)


Ph.D. in Marine Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1998

B.S. in Chemistry with Highest Honors and Highest Distinction, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1992

Research Interests

With a background in chemistry and oceanography, Tori HoehleroHoe studies microbial ecosystems on Earth to inform how we will seek evidence of life beyond Earth.  His research combines geochemical and biochemical perspectives to understand how energy availability shapes habitability and impacts the nature, abundance, and quality of evidence for life. 



Hoehler, TM, DJ Mankel, PR Girguis, TM McCollom, NY Kiang, and BB Jørgensen (in press), The metabolic rate of the biosphere and its major components, PNAS.

McCollom, Hoehler, Fike, Bell, Klein, Moskowitz, Solheid (in press) Formation of a mixed-layer sulfide-hydroxide mineral (Haapalaite) during experimental serpentinization of olivine, American Mineralogist.

Randolph-Flagg, N, T Ely, SM Som, EL Shock, CR German, TM Hoehler (2023) Phosphate availability and implications for life on ocean worlds, Nature Communications, 14, 2388.

Davila, AF, Hoehler, TM, and others (accepted), Life detection knowledge base: taxonomy of potential biosignatures, Astrobiology.


Hoehler, TM (2022) Implications of H2-CO2 disequilibrium for life on Enceladus, Nature Astronomy, 6, 3-4.

MacKenzie, SM, M Neveu, AF Davila, JI Lunine, ML Cable, CM Phillips-Lander, JL Eigenbrode, JH Waite, KL Craft, JD Hofgartner, CP McKay, CR Glein, D Burton, SP Kounaves, RA Mathies, SD Vance, MJ Malaska, R Gold, CR German, KM Soderlund, P Willis, C Freissinet, A McEwen, JR Brucato, JP de Vera, TM Hoehler, and J Heldmann (2022) Science objectives for flagship-class mission concepts for the search for evidence of life at Enceladus, Astrobiology, 22, 685-712.

Hand, KP, AE Murray, JB Garvin, WB Brinckerhoff, B Christner, KE Edgett, B Ehlmann, C German, A Hayes, T Hoehler, et al (2022) Science goals and mission architecture of the Europa lander mission concept, Planetary Science Journal, 3, 22.


Hoehler, TM, JS Bowman, KL Craft, PA Willis, and DP Winebrenner (2021) Leveraging Earth hydro­sphere science in the search for life on ocean worlds. Oceanography, oceanog.2021.412.

Green, J, TM Hoehler, M Neveu, S Domagal-Goldman, D Scalice, and M Voytek (2021) Call for a framework for reporting evidence for life beyond Earth, Nature, 598, 575-579.

German, CR, DK Blackman, AT Fisher, PR Girguis, KP Hand, TM Hoehler, JA Huber, JC Marshall, KR Pietro, JS Seewald, EL Shock, C Sotin, AM Thurnherr, and BM Toner (2021) Ocean system science to inform the exploration of ocean worlds. Oceanography

Templeton, A, E Ellison, C Glombitza, Y Morono, K Rempfert, T Hoehler, C Zeigler, J Spear, E Kraus, D Nothaft, E Fones, Munro-Ehrlich, E Boyd, L Mayhew, D Cardace, J Matter, and P Kelemen (2021) Accessing the subsurface biosphere within rocks undergoing active low-temperature serpentinization in the Samail Ophiolite, JGR-Biogeosciences, 126, e2021JG006315.

Cable, M, C Porco, C Glein, C German, S MacKenzie, M Neveu, T Hoehler, A Hofmann, A Hendrix, J Eigenbrode, F Postberg, L Spilker, A McEwen, N Khawaja, J Waite, P Wurz, J Helbert, A Anbar, J-P Vera, and J Nunez (2021) The science case for a return to Enceladus, Planetary Science Journal, 2, 132.

Sabuda, M, LI Putman, TM Hoehler, MDY Kubo, W Brazelton, D Cardace, and M Schrenk (2021) Biogeochemical gradients in a serpentinization-influenced aquifer: Implications for gas exchange between the subsurface and atmosphere, JGR-Biogeosciences, 126, e2020JG006209.

Ray, C, C Glein, J Waite, B Teolis, T Hoehler, J Huber, J Lunine, and F Postberg (2021) Oxidation processes diversify the metabolic menu on Enceladus, Icarus, 364: 114248

Lehmer O, D Catling, N Kiang, N Parenteau, and T Hoehler (2021) The peak absorbance wavelength of photosynthetic pigments around other stars from spectral optimization, Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Science, 8:689441.

Glombitza C, L Putman, K Rempfert, M Kubo, M Schrenk, A Templeton, and T Hoehler (2021) Active microbial sulfate reduction in fluids of serpentinizing peridotites of the continental subsurface, Communications Earth and Environment, 2, 84.


Hoehler TM, W Bains, A Davila, MN Parenteau, and A Pohorille (2020) Life’s requirements, habitability, and biological potential. In Planetary Astrobiology (V. Meadows et al., eds.), pp. 37–69. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, DOI: 10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816540068-ch002.

Cable M, M Neveu, H Hsu, and T Hoehler (2020) Enceladus. In Planetary Astrobiology (V. Meadows et al., eds.), pp. 217–246. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, DOI: 10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816540068-ch009.

Sabuda MC, WJ Brazelton,LI Putman, TM McCollom, TM Hoehler, MDY Kubo, D Cardace, and MO Schrenk (2020) A dynamic microbial sulfur cycle in a serpentinizing continental ophiolite.  Environmental Microbiology, doi:

Seyler, L, W Brazelton, C McLean, L Putman, A Heyer, M Kubo, T Hoehler, D Cardace, and M Schrenk (2020), Carbon assimilation strategies in ultrabasic groundwater:  clues from the integrated study of a serpentinization-influenced aquifer, mSystems 5:e00607-19.


Hendrix, AR, TA Hurford, LM Barge, MT Bland, JS Bowman, W Brinckerhoff, BJ Buratti, ML Cable, J Castillo-Rogez, GC Collins, S Diniega, CR German, AG Hayes, TM Hoehler, S Hosseini, CJA Howett, AS McEwen, CD Neish, M Neveu, TA Nordheim, GW Patterson, DA Patthoff, C Phillips, A Rhoden, BE Schmidt, KN Singer, JM Soderblom, and SD Vance (2019) The NASA roadmap to ocean worlds. Astrobiology, 19, 1-27.

Lindsay, MR, D Colman, MJ Amenabar, KE Fristad, KM Fecteau, RV Debes, J Spear, EL Shock, TM Hoehler, and ES Boyd (2019) Probing the geological source and biological fate of hydrogen in Yellowstone hot springs.  Environmental Microbiology, 21, 3816-3830.


Shapiro, B, TM Hoehler, and Q Jin (2018) Integrating genome-scale metabolic models into the prediction of microbial kinetics in natural environments.  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 242, 102-122. 

Hoehler, TM, NA Losey, RP Gunsalus, and MJ McInerney (2018) Environmental constraints that limit methanogenesis, in: Stams, A, and Sousa, D (eds) Biogenesis of Hydrocarbons, Springer, Cham.

Lehmer, O, DC Catling, MN Parenteau, and TM Hoehler (2018) The productivity of oxygenic photosynthesis around cool M-dwarf stars, The Astrophysical Journal, 859, 1-8.

Ortiz, E, M Tominaga, D Cardace, MO Schrenk, TM Hoehler, MDY Kubo, and D Rucker (2018) Geophysical characterization of serpentinite hosted hydrogeology at the McLaughlin Natural Reserve, Coast Range Ophiolite, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 19, 114-131.

Hoehler, TM, SM Som, and NY Kiang (2018) Life’s requirements, in: Deeg, H, and Belmonte, J (eds) Handbook of Exoplanets, Springer, Cham.

Lindsay, MR, MJ Amenabar, KM Fecteau, RV Debes, MC Fernandes Martins, KE Fristad, H Xu, TM Hoehler, EL Shock, and ES Boyd (2018) Subsurface processes influence oxidant availability and chemoautotrophic hydrogen metabolism in Yellowstone hot springs, Geobiology, 2018;00:1–19.

Schink, B, MJ McInerney, TM Hoehler, and RP Gunsalus (2018) Introduction to microbial hydrocarbon production:  bioenergetics, in: Stams, A, and Sousa, D (eds) Biogenesis of Hydrocarbons, Springer, Cham.


Kempes, CP, van Bodegom, PM, D Wolpert, E Libby, J Amend, and TM Hoehler (2017) Drivers of bacterial maintenance and minimal energy requirements, Frontiers in Microbiology, 31.

Price, R, ES Boyd, TM Hoehler, LM Wehrmann, E Bogason, H Valtýsson, J Örlygsson, B Gautason, and JP Amend (2017) Alkaline vents and steep Na+ gradients from ridge-flank basalts—Implications for the origin and evolution of life, Geology, 45, 1135-1138.

Canovas, PA, TM Hoehler, and EL Shock (2018) Geochemical bioenergetics during low-temperature serpentinization: an example from the Samail Ophiolite, Sultanate of Oman, Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences, 122, 1821-1847.

Twing, KI, WJ Brazelton, MDY Kubo, AJ Hyer, D Cardace, TM Hoehler, TM McCollom, and MO Schrenk (2017) Serpentinization-influenced groundwater harbors extremely low diversity microbial communities adapted to high pH, Frontiers in Microbiology, 8, 308.

Hand, KP et al (2017) Report of the Europa lander science definition team.


Kempes, CP, L Wang, JP Amend, J Doyle, and TM Hoehler (2016) Evolutionary tradeoffs in cellular composition across diverse bacteria, The ISME Journal, 10, 2145–2157.


Urschel, M, MDY Kubo, TM Hoehler, J Peters, and E Boyd (2015) Carbon source preference in chemosynthetic hot spring communities, Applied and Environmental Microbiology,

Lever, MA, KL Rogers, KG Lloyd, J Overmann, B Schink, RK Thauer, TM Hoehler, and BB Jørgensen (2015) Life under Extreme Energy Limitation: A Synthesis of Laboratory- and Field-Based Investigations, FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 39, 688-728.

Wang, DT, DS Gruen, B Sherwood-Lollar, K-U Hinrichs, LC Stewart, JF Holden, AN Hristov, JW Pohlman, PL Morill, M Konnecke, KB Delwiche, EP Reeves, CN Sutcliffe, DJ Ritter, JS Seewald, JC McIntosh, HF Hemond, MD Kubo, D Cardace, TM Hoehler, and S Ono (2015) Nonequilibrium clumped isotope signals in microbial methane, Science, 348, 428-431.

Woebken, D, LC Burow, F Behnam, X Mayali, A Schintlmeister, ED Fleming, L Prufert-Bebout, SW Singer, A Lopez Cortes, TM Hoehler, J Pett-Ridge, AM Spormann, M Wagner, PK Weber, and BM Bebout (2015) Revisiting N2 fixation in Guerrero Negro intertidal microbial mats with a functional single-cell approach, ISME Journal, 9, 485–496.


Crespo-Medina, M, KI Twing, MDY Kubo, TM Hoehler, D Cardace, T McCollom, and MO Schrenk (2014) Insights into environmental controls on microbial communities in a continental serpentinite aquifer using a microcosm-based approach.  Front. Microbiol., 5, 604-.

Houghton, J, D Fike, G Druschel, V Orphan, TM Hoehler, and DJ Des Marais (2014)  Spatial variability in photosynthetic and heterotrophic activity drives localized δ13Corg fluctuations and carbonate precipitation in hypersaline microbial mats.  Geobiology, 12, 557-574.

Hoehler, TM and MJ Alperin (2014) Methane minimalism, Nature, 507, 436-437.  [Commentary]

Burow, LC, D Woebken, IPG Marshall, SW Singer, J Pett-Ridge, L Prufert-Bebout, AM Spormann, BM Bebout, PK Weber, and TM Hoehler (2014) Identification of Desulfobacterales as primary hydrogenotrophs in a complex microbial mat community, Geobiology, 12, 221-230.

Lee, JZ, LC Burow, D Woebken, RC Everroad, MD Kubo, AM Spormann, PK Weber, J Pett-Ridge, BM Bebout, and TM Hoehler (2014) Fermentation couples Chloroflexi and sulfate-reducing bacteria to Cyanobacteria in hypersaline microbial mats, Frontiers in Microbial Physiology and Metabolism, 5, 1-17.


Cardace, D, TM Hoehler, TM McCollom, MO Schrenk, D Carnevale, MDY Kubo, and K Twing (2013) Establishment of the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (CROMO):  Drilling objectives and preliminary outcomes, Scientific Drilling, 16, 45-55.

Europa Lander Science Definition Team (2013) Science potential from a Europa Lander, Astrobiology, 13, 740-773.

Hoehler, TM and BB Jørgensen (2013) Microbial life under extreme energy limitation, Nature Reviews Microbiology, 11, 83-94.

Finke, N, TM Hoehler, L Polerecky, B Buehring, and B Thamdrup (2013)  Competition for inorganic carbon between oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs in a hypersaline microbial mat, Guerrero Negro, Mexico, Environmental Microbiology, 15, 1532-1550.


Burow, LC, D Woebken, IPG Marshall, E Lindquist, B Bebout, L Prufert-Bebout, TM Hoehler, SG Tringe, J Pett-Ridge, PK Weber, AM Spormann, and SW Singer (2012) Anoxic carbon flux in photosynthetic microbial mats as revealed by metatranscriptomics, The ISME Journal, 7, 817-829.

Woebken, D., LC Burow, L Prufert-Bebout, B Bebout, T Hoehler, J Pett-Ridge, A Spormann, P Weber, and S Singer (2012) Identification of a novel cyanobacterial group as active diazotrophs in a coastal microbial mat using NanoSIMS analysis, The ISME Journal, 16, 1427-1439.


Burow, LC, D Woebken, B Bebout, P McMurdie, S Singer, J Pett-Ridge, L Prufert-Bebout, A Spormann, P Weber, and TM Hoehler (2011) Hydrogen Production in Photosynthetic Microbial Mats in the Elkhorn Slough Estuary, Monterey Bay, The ISME Journal, 16, 863-874.

Orphan, VJ and TM Hoehler (2011) Hydrogen for dinner, Nature, 476, 154-155. [Commentary]


Hoehler, TM and F Westall (2010) Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group Goal One:  Determine if life ever arose on Mars, Astrobiology, 10, 859-867. Alperin, MJ and TM Hoehler (2010) The ongoing mystery of seafloor methane, Science, 329, 288-289.Hoehler, TM (2010) Innumerable globes like this one?, Nature Geoscience, 3, 447. [Commentary]

Hoehler, TM, RP Gunsalus, and MJ McInerney (2010) Environmental constraints that limit methanogenesis, in Handbook of Hydrocarbon and Lipid Microbiology, KN Timmis (Ed.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 636-654.

McInerney, MJ, TM Hoehler, and RP Gunsalus (2010) Introduction to hydrocarbon production:  Bioenergetics, in Handbook of Hydrocarbon and Lipid Microbiology, KN Timmis (Ed.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 322-335.

Cardace, D. and T.M. Hoehler. 2010. Extremophiles in serpentinizing systems.  In Serpentine: A Model for Evolution and Ecology, Harrison and Rajakaruna (Eds.), University of California Press. Banks, E, N Taylor, J Gulley, B Lubbers, J Giarrizzo, H Bullen, T Hoehler, and H Barton (2010) Bacterial calcium carbonate precipitation in cave environments: A function of calcium homeostasis.  Geomicrobiology Journal, 27: 444-454.


Alperin, MJ and TM Hoehler (2009) Anaerobic methane oxidation by archaea/sulfate-reducing bacteria aggregates:  2. Isotopic constraints, American Journal of Science, 309, 869-957.

Alperin, MJ and TM Hoehler (2009) Anaerobic methane oxidation by archaea/sulfate-reducing bacteria aggregates:  1. Thermodynamic and physical constraints, American Journal of Science, 309, 958-984.

Cardace, D and TM Hoehler (2009) Serpentinizing fluids craft microbial habitat, Northeastern Naturalist, 16, 272-284.

Fike, DA, N Finke, G Blake, J Zha, TM Hoehler, and VJ Orphan (2009) The effect of sulfate concentration on (sub)millimeter-scale sulfide δ34S in hypersaline cyanobacterial mats over the diurnal cycle, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 73, 6187-6204.

Hoehler, TM and BB Jørgensen (2009) Energy Emerges, Environmental Microbiology Reports, 1, 9-10.


Hausrath, EM, A Treiman, DL Bish, DF Blake, P Sarrazin, TM Hoehler, E Vicenzi, I Midtkandl, A Steele, and SL Brantley (2008) Short- and long-term olivine weathering on Svalbard, and implications for Mars, Astrobiology, 8, 1079-1092.

Des Marais, DJ, JA Nuth, LJ Allamandola, AP Boss, JD Farmer, TM Hoehler, BM Jakosky, VS Meadows, A Pohorille, B Runnegar, and AM Spormann (2008) The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap, Astrobiology, 8, 715-730.


Hoehler, TM (2007) An energy balance concept of habitability, Astrobiology, 7, 824-838.

Hoehler, TM, JP Amend, and E Shock (2007) A ‘follow the energy’ approach to astrobiology, Astrobiology, 7, 819-823.

Finke, N, TM Hoehler, and BB Jørgensen, (2007) Hydrogen `leakage’ during methanogenesis from methanol and methylamine: implications for anaerobic carbon degradation pathways in aquatic sediments, Environmental Microbiology, 9, 1060-1071.


Schulte, MD, DF Blake, TM Hoehler, and TM McCollom (2006), Serpentinization and its implications for life on the early Earth and Mars, Astrobiology, 6, 364-376.


Hoehler, TM (2005), Cretaceous park?  A commentary on microbial paleomics, Astrobiology, 5, 95-99. [Commentary]

Hoehler, TM (2005), Biogeochemistry of H2, In:  Metal Ions in Biological Systems:  Biogeochemical Cycles of Elements (Vol. 43), Sigel, A., Sigel, H., and Sigel, R. (eds), pp. 9-48, Marcel Dekker, New York.

Decker, K, C Potter, B Bebout, D Des Marais, S Carpenter, M Discipulo, T Hoehler, S Miller, B Thamdrup, K Turk, and P Visscher (2005), Mathematical simulation of the diel O, S, and C biogeochemistry of a hypersaline microbial mat, FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 52, 377-395.

Kappler, A, D Emerson, K Edwards, JP Amend, J Gralnick, P Grathwohl, TM Hoehler, and K Straub (2005), Microbial activity in biogeochemical gradients – new aspects of research, Geobiology, 3, 229-233.


Hoehler, TM (2004), Biological energy requirements as quantitative boundary conditions for life in the subsurface, Geobiology, 2, 205-215.

Bebout, BM, TM Hoehler, B Thamdrup, DB Albert, S Carpenter, ME Hogan, KA Turk, and DJ Des Marais (2004), Methane Production by Microbial Mats Under Low Sulfate Conditions, Geobiology, 2, 87-96.


Hoehler, TM, DB Albert, MJ Alperin, BM Bebout, CS Martens, and DJ Des Marais (2002), Comparative ecology of H2 cycling in phototrophic and sedimentary ecosystems.  Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 81, 575-585.

Bebout, BM, DJ Des Marais, M Discipulo, T Embaye, F Garcia-Pichel, TM Hoehler, ME Hogan, LL Jahnke, RM Keller, SR Miller, LE Prufert-Bebout, C Raleigh, M Rothrock, KA Turk (2002), Long-term manipulations of intact microbial mat communities in a greenhouse collaboratory:  Simulating Earth’s present and past field environments, Astrobiology, 2, 383-402.


Hoehler, TM, BM Bebout, and DJ Des Marais (2001), The role of microbial mats in the production of reduced gases on the early Earth, Nature, 412, 324-327.

Hoehler, TM, MJ Alperin, DB Albert, and CS Martens (2001), Apparent minimum free energy requirements for methanogenic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria in an anoxic marine sediment.  FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 38(1), 33-41.

2000 and Earlier

Hoehler, TM, WS Borowski, MJ Alperin, N Rodriguez, CK Paull (2000), Model, stable isotope, and radio-tracer characterization of anaerobic methane oxidation in gas hydrate-bearing sediments of the Blake Ridge, Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 164, Paull, Matsumoto, Wallace, and Dillon (eds.), pp. 79-85, Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, TX.

Borowski, WS, TM Hoehler, MJ Alperin, N Rodriguez, CK Paull (2000), Significance of anaerobic methane oxidation in methane-rich sediments overlying the Blake Ridge gas hydrates, Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 164, Paull, Matsumoto, Wallace, and Dillon (eds.), pp. 87-99, Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, TX.

Hoehler, TM, DB Albert, MJ Alperin, and CS Martens (1999), Acetogenesis from CO2 in an anoxic marine sediment, Limnology and Oceanography, 44, 662-667.

Hoehler, TM, DB Albert, MJ Alperin, and CS Martens (1998), Thermodynamic control on hydrogen concentrations in anoxic sediments, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 62, 1745-1756.

Hoehler, TM, and MJ Alperin (1996), Anaerobic methane oxidation by a methanogen-sulfate reducer consortium:  geochemical evidence and biochemical considerations, In:  Microbial Growth on C-1 Compounds, Lidstrom and Tabita (eds), pp. 326-333, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Hoehler, TM, MJ Alperin, DB Albert, and CS Martens (1994), Field and laboratory studies of methane oxidation in an anoxic marine sediment:  evidence for a methanogen-sulfate reducer consortium, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 8, 451-463.

Alperin, MJ, NE Blair, DB Albert, and TM Hoehler (1993), The carbon isotope biogeochemistry of methane production in anoxic sediments:  2.  A laboratory experiment, In:  Biogeochemistry of Global Change:  Radiatively Active Trace Gases, RS Oremland (editor), Chapman and Hall, New York, N.Y., pp 594-605.

Alperin, MJ, NE Blair, DB Albert, TM Hoehler, and CS Martens (1992), Factors that control the stable carbon isotopic composition of methane produced in an anoxic marine sediment, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 6, 271-291.

NASA Missions

Mars Science Laboratory Collaborating Research Scientist;

Europa Lander science definition team

Awards & Others

Ames Associate Fellow, 2022

NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal, 2022

H. Julian Allen Award, 2017

NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal, 2015

NASA Ames Honor Award for Excellence in Education and Outreach, 2014

Inaugural Distinguished Alumni Award, Royster Society of Fellows, 2013

Carl Sagan Lecturer, American Geophysical Union, 2009

NASA Ames Honor Award for Excellence in Research, 2009

Editorial Boards: Astrobiology (2008-2018), Geobiology (2006-present), Environmental Microbiology (2006-present), Frontiers in Microbiology (2011-present), MDPI Life (2020-present)

Kavli Frontiers of Science Fellow (National Academy of Sciences), 2007

Fellow of the California Academy of Sciences, 2007

Best First Paper Award, Ames Research Center, 2001

NASA Spotlight Award for Education and Public Outreach, 2001

National Research Council Fellow, 1998 to 2001

Royster Fellow, 1996 to 1997

National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellow, 1993 to 1996

National Science Foundation Graduate Fellow, 1993

Venable Medal in Chemistry, University of North Carolina, 1992