[image-252][image-220]New Satellite Animation Shows the End of Hurricane Amanda
A new animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite shows the weakening and dissipation of the Eastern Pacific Ocean's Hurricane Amanda. The animation that runs from from May 28 to May 30 was created at NASA/NOAA's GOES Project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.
On satellite imagery, Amanda last resembled a tropical cyclone on May 28 around 21:45 UTC (5:45 p.m. EDT) when it still had a comma shape to it. On May 29, Amanda ceased to qualify as a tropical cyclone, according to the National Hurricane Center (NHC).
The 45 second animation shows how Amanda's circulation weakened as the thunderstorm development waned and the circulation center became harder to identify. To create the video and imagery, NASA/NOAA's GOES Project used cloud data from NOAA's GOES-West satellite and overlayed it on a true-color image of ocean and land created by data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS, instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua and Terra satellites. Together, those data created the entire picture of Amanda's last days.
NHC issued their final warning on post-tropical cyclone Amanda on May 29 at 21:00 UTC (5:00 p.m. EDT). At that time, Amanda's maximum sustained winds were near 25 knots and weakening. It was located near 16.2 north latitude and 109.0 west longitude, about 465 nautical miles south of Cabo San Lucas, Mexico.
By May 29 at 23:15 UTC (5:45 p.m. EDT), the circulation was barely identifiable on GOES-West satellite imagery as the post-tropical cyclone moved east toward mainland Mexico.
On May 30, the remnant low pressure area formerly known as Amanda was located near 17.0 north latitude and 109 west longitude. The minimum central pressure of the remnant low was near 1008 millibars. The NHC noted "Although this low is currently Embedded within a broad area of deep moisture...upper level drier air is starting to approach from the northwest."
GOES satellites provide the kind of continuous monitoring necessary for intensive data analysis. Geostationary describes an orbit in which a satellite is always in the same position with respect to the rotating Earth. This allows GOES to hover continuously over one position on Earth's surface, appearing stationary. As a result, GOES provide a constant vigil for the atmospheric "triggers" for severe weather conditions such as tornadoes, flash floods, hail storms and hurricanes.
Now that Amanda has faded into hurricane history as the strongest May hurricane on record in the Eastern Pacific, forecasters and satellites are now keeping an eye on a developing area of disturbed weather several hundred miles south of southeastern Mexico.
Text credit: Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
[image-77][image-206]May 29, 2014 - Tropical Storm Amanda Gets Bisected and Animated by NASA's CloudSat
Tropical Storm Amanda continues to weaken in the eastern Pacific from dry air and wind shear. NASA's CloudSat satellite captured a view of the storm from the side revealing heavy precipitation when the storm was the most powerful May Eastern Pacific on record.
NASA's CloudSat satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda in the east Pacific on May 25, 2014 at 2100 UTC (5 p.m. EDT) and was about 40 km (24.8 miles) outside of the center of the storm. Hurricane Amanda contained estimated maximum winds of 130 knots (150 mph/240 kph) and minimum pressure of 935 millibars at the time of this overpass. CloudSat passed over the eastern section of the storm, after it reached peak intensity earlier in the day. On May 25 Hurricane Amanda had become the strongest May hurricane on record for the Eastern Pacific basin.
CloudSat data showed a deep area of moderate to heavy-moderate precipitation below the freezing level (where precipitation changes from frozen to liquid). Cloudsat also showed a deep anvil cloud deck that extended northward with smaller cumulus clouds detectable beneath.
Four days later, Amanda quickly weakened as a result of dry air moving into the system and wind shear.
National Hurricane Center (NHC) forecaster Brennan noted at 5 a.m. EDT on May 29 in the NHC Discussion that "Amanda has come unglued during the past few hours, with the remaining deep convection now located more than 2 degrees to the northeast of the low-level center. This weakening appears to be due to the usually potent combination of vertical wind shear and mid/upper-level dry air advecting (moving) over the cyclone."
By 11 a.m. EDT (8 a.m. PDT) on May 29, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) reported that Amanda weakened to a depression. The center of Tropical Depression Amanda was located near latitude 16.3 north and longitude 110.0 west, about 455 miles (735 km) south of the southern tip of Baja California, Mexico. Because Amanda was so far from land, there were no warnings or watches in effect.
Amanda's maximum sustained winds have decreased to near 35 mph (55Kph) with higher gusts. The NHC discussion at 11 a.m. EDT noted that Amanda's center had become increasingly elongated and diffuse. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1006 millibars.
The depression was moving toward the east near 7 mph (11 kph) and NHC expects a slower eastward or east-northeastward motion during the next day or so. The NHC expects Amanda to become a remnant low in about a day.
Text credit: Natalie D. Tourville/Rob Gutro
Colorado State University/NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
[image-160][image-176][image-144]May 28, 2014 - NASA's TRMM and Aqua Satellites Peer into Tropical Storm Amanda
Hurricane Amanda has weakened to a tropical storm, but not before NASA's TRMM satellite took a look under its clouds at the rate of heavy rainfall it was generating. After weakening to a tropical storm, NASA's Aqua satellite identified that those strong thunderstorms were limited to the area around the center of its circulation.
The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite known as TRMM passed over Amanda on Saturday May 24, 2014 at 2150 UTC (5:50 p.m. EDT). TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency known as JAXA.
At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, rainfall data from TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) instruments were overlaid on a GOES-15 visible/infrared image received at 2200 UTC (6 p.m. EDT). That was about six hours after Amanda was upgraded to a hurricane. At that time, Amanda had winds of about 70 knots (80.5 mph). TRMM's Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument had an excellent view of the rain falling at a rate of over 147 mm (about 5.8 inches) per hour in the northwestern side of the Amanda's eye wall. Intense storms in that area were reaching heights of over 16.3 km (about 10.1 miles).
The TRMM satellite had two other good views of Hurricane Amanda: on Sunday, May 25 at 2054 UTC (4:54 p.m. EDT) and on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT).
On May 25, Hurricane Amanda had winds speeds estimated at 130 knots (about 150 mph). Two days later on May 27 Amanda was still a very strong hurricane with winds of about 110 knots (about 127 mph).
A false-colored infrared image showing cloud top temperatures in Amanda was taken by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. The image was created at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California using data from May 28 at 08:59 UTC (4:59 a.m. EDT). The infrared image showed the concentration of the strongest thunderstorms (with the coldest cloud top temperatures within Hurricane Amanda were around the center of circulation.
The National Hurricane Center (NHC) discussion on May 28 said "although Amanda is producing a considerable amount of deep convection, with cloud tops as cold as -85 C (-121 F), the cloud pattern lacks organization."
On May 28 at 8 a.m. PDT (11 a.m. EDT) the center of Tropical Storm Amanda was located near latitude 15.0 north and longitude 112.0 west, about 560 miles (905 km) south-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California, Mexico. Amanda has weakened to a tropical storm with maximum sustained winds near 65 mph (100 kph). Amanda was moving toward the northeast near 3 mph (6 kph) and a slightly faster Northeastward motion is expected during the next day or two, according to the National Hurricane Center.
NHC Forecaster Cangialosi noted that even though wind shear is forecast to lessen on Thursday, Amanda is expected to continue to lose strength due to dry air entrainment (dry air moving in will sap the moisture needed to create thunderstorms that make up a tropical cyclone) and lower sea surface temperatures along the forecast track.
NHC forecasters noted that Amanda could become a tropical depression by early Friday, May 30.
Text credit: Hal Pierce/Rob Gutro
SSAI/NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
May 27, 2014 - Eastern Pacific Season Off with a Bang: Amanda is First Major Hurricane [image-36][image-112][image-128]
The first tropical cyclone of the Eastern Pacific hurricane season grew into a major hurricane as Hurricane Amanda reached Category 4 status on the Saffir-Simpson scale over the Memorial Day holiday weekend. NASA and NOAA satellites watched as Amanda developed an eye while strengthening.
Fortunately, Amanda is far enough away from coastal Mexico that no watches or warnings are in effect today, May 27.
On Sunday, May 25, Amanda strengthened into the first Major Hurricane in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Maximum sustained winds were near 155 mph (250 kph). Amanda was centered near 11.8 north and 111.1 west, about 770 miles (1,240 km) south of the southern tip of Baja California. Amanda is a Category 4 on the Saffir-Simpson scale. Minimum central pressure was near 932 millibars, and Amanda was crawling to the north at 2 mph (4 kph). Visible imagery from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite and NOAA's GOES-West satellite captured imagery that revealed an eye in Hurricane Amanda.
On Monday, May 26, Hurricane Amanda started to weaken from its peak at a Category 4 status on the Saffir-Simpson scale. An image from NOAA's GOES-West satellite at 1200 UTC/5:00 a.m. PDT showed that Amanda's eye had become cloud-filled. Amanda's maximum sustained winds were near 140 mph (220 kph) and the hurricane was moving to the north-northwest at 7 mph/ (11 kph). Amanda was centered near 13.1 north and 111.6 west, about 685 miles (1,105 km) south of the southern tip of Baja California.
On Tuesday, May 26 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT/8 a.m. PDT), Amanda's maximum sustained winds were near 120 mph (195 kph). Amanda is a category three hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane wind scale. Amanda was centered near 14.7 north latitude and 112.3 west longitude, about 585 miles (945 km) south-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California, Mexico. Amanda was moving to the north-northwest at 6 mph (9 kph) and had a minimum central pressure of 957 millibars.
The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C. created a composite image using rainfall rate data from NASA-JAXA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite to create a comprehensive look at Amanda. The infrared data showed the cloud extent, and the TRMM data showed heavy rainfall around Amanda's center falling at 1.4 inches (35 mm) per hour.
The National Hurricane Center forecasts weakening during the next 48 hours. In fact, NHC forecasters expect Amanda to weaken to a tropical storm by Thursday.
Text credit: Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
[image-94]May 24, 2014 - Dawn Breaks on Tropical Storm Amanda in Eastern Pacific
Shortly after dawn broke in the Eastern Pacific Ocean this morning, May 23, Tropical Depression 1E organized and strengthened into the first tropical storm of the season: Amanda
NOAA's GOES-West satellite provided a visible image of Amanda on May 23 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT/8 a.m. PDT). The GOES imagery showed strong thunderstorms in the northern and western quadrants and is indicative of a better structure in the banding of thunderstorms around the low-level center of circulation.
By that time, Amanda's maximum sustained winds had increased to 40 mph (65 kph). Tropical-storm-force winds extend outward up to 35 miles (55 km) from the center. The NHC discussion indicated that forecasters there expect Amanda to reach hurricane strength in about three or so days.
Amanda was centered near 10.9 north latitude and 108.4 west longitude, about 620 miles (1,000 km) south-southwest of Manzanillo, Mexico. Amanda was moving to the west-northwest at 5 mph (7 kph) and had a minimum central pressure of 1005 millibars.
Forecaster Berg at the National Hurricane Center noted that Amanda is expected to remain in weak steering flow (which means there's not a strong weather system to push or guide it), and its motion should remain less than 5 knots during the next 5 days.
Text credit: Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
[image-78][image-51]May 24, 2014 - NASA Sees First Tropical Depression of Eastern Pacific Hurricane Season
One week after the official start of hurricane season in the Eastern Pacific Ocean, the first tropical depression was born hundreds of miles southwest of Mexico. NASA's TRMM satellite and NOAA's GOES-West satellites provided looks inside and outside of the depression's clouds. Hurricane season in the Eastern Pacific began officially on May 15.
On May 21 at 22:59 UTC (6:59 p.m. EDT) the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite passed over System 92E, which was what Tropical Depression 1E (TD1E) was called before it organized into a depression. TRMM's Precipitation Radar (PR) data were used to create a 3-D view of System 92E's rainfall structure and revealed a few strong thunderstorms reached altitudes of 16.5 km (about 10.2 miles). These tall thunderstorms are often a sign that a tropical cyclone is forming or strengthening. Within twenty-four hours
TD1E consolidated into a depression around 2 p.m. PDT (5 p.m. EDT) on May 22. At that time it was centered near 10.3 north latitude and 107.4 west longitude or about 635 miles (1,020 km) south-southwest of Manzanillo Mexico and had maximum sustained winds near 30 mph (45 kph).
Today, May 23, the depression continued to strengthen and maximum sustained winds increased to 35 mph (55 kph). The National Hurricane Center (NHC) expects the depression to become a tropical storm later today. At 0900 UTC (2 a.m. EDT) TD1E was located about 625 miles (1, 005 km) south-southwest of Manzanillo, Mexico near 10.8 north latitude and 108.2 west longitude. TD1E is moving to the west-northwest at 5 mph (7 kph) and has a minimum central pressure of 1006 millibars.
Forecaster Beven at NHC noted that "Convective banding is currently increasing near the center of Tropical Depression One-E over the northern semicircle. The depression is currently expected to be in an area of light/moderate southerly vertical wind shear during the forecast period. This should allow at least gradual strengthening."
The National Hurricane Center expects TD1E to move slowly toward the west-northwest or west is expected for the next couple of days.
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center