Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication
Imagine a machine that can build a part or a tool as the need arises,
whether on Earth, Mars or the International Space Station.
Almost 10 years ago, engineers at NASA's Langley Research Center imagined
just that. They developed the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication, or EBF3,
a process that uses an electron beam gun, a dual wire feed and computer
controls to manufacture metallic structures for building parts or tools in
hours, rather than days or weeks.
With the EBF3 acting as a sort of remote machine shop, the need for sending
up tools and parts in a spacecraft could be eliminated. And the tight
tolerances in fabrication become even more critical in zero gravity
Here and now, its capabilities are being used in a partnership between NASA
"This is exactly the kind of technology we want to capitalize on," said Lori
Garver, NASA's deputy administrator. "We want to push the technology
boundary, not only with improvements of our own systems, but it is our job
to also see that growth in the private sector."
Garver and Bobby Braun, NASA's chief technologist, visited Langley to learn
about a way in which NASA can help industry.
The EBF3 is being used to manufacture titanium spars for vertical tails of
the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. Less wasted titanium and reduced machining
times result in a savings for partners, Lockheed Martin and Brisbane,
Australia-based Ferra Engineering, which will open the world's first
facility to manufacture the F-35 components.
"But this first application doesn't mean we are finished," said Karen
Taminger, a materials engineer at Langley. In fact, they are just
According to Taminger, most of the interest in the technology is coming
from aerospace because of the EBF3's capability to tailor material and
properties and improve the performance of aircraft.
The EBF3 can manufacture complex geometrics in a single operation and
provides efficient use of power and feedstock. Garver and Braun saw that
when they peered into a porthole to view an electron beam melting a wire
into a continuous bead of aluminum that goes onto a plate. As the wire
melts, a vacuum pulls out the air.
The computer-driven process can designate shapes and patterns and leaves
behind no wasted material. It can also resurface a design with a harder
material, making it lighter and more cost-efficient. For the aviation
industry, lighter means less fuel burn.
As the technology is introduced, applications for new industries are
evolving. Recently, while showcasing the EBF3 on Capitol Hill, a
representative from GM showed interest in using it to build tools for
Langley is the only dedicated research center using this technology.
Through a combination of technology and NASA's research efforts, Taminger
sees it as a win-win for the private sector. And for Garver, the victory
stretches across the country, and the world, with the creation of more
manufacturing jobs and improved quality of life.
Applications of the EBF3 are not limited to imagination. They can be seen,
used and shared. And then, imagined further.
The Researcher News
NASA Langley Research Center