Studying the Features of the Growth and Development of Plants, and Technology for their Culturing in Spaceflight on the ISS RS (Rastenia-Gorokh (Plants-Pea)) (Rastenia-Gorokh (Plants-Pea) ) - 03.28.18

Overview | Description | Applications | Operations | Results | Publications | Imagery

ISS Science for Everyone

Science Objectives for Everyone
The goal of the Studying the Features of the Growth and Development of Plants, and Technology for their Culturing in Spaceflight on the ISS RS (Rastenia-Gorokh (Plants-Pea)) experiment is to do research in space in order to solve fundamental problems in biology and to optimize modes of culturing plants for future greenhouses to be part of future crew member life support systems. Main scientific tasks of the experiment include studying the impact of spaceflight factors on the growth and development of plants, and impacts on the phenology of plant development and the genetic consequences of the long-term cultivation of plants in microgravity. Understanding the effects of gravity on plant life is essential in preparation for future interplanetary exploration. The ability to produce high energy, low mass food sources during space flight will enable the maintenance of crew health during long duration missions while having a reduced impact on resources necessary for long distance travel.
Science Results for Everyone
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The following content was provided by Vladimir Nikolaevich Sychev, Ph.D., and is maintained in a database by the ISS Program Science Office.
Experiment Details

OpNom:

Principal Investigator(s)
Vladimir Nikolaevich Sychev, Ph.D., Institute of Medical and Biological Problems of Russian Academy of Sciences (IMBP RAS), Moscow, Russia

Co-Investigator(s)/Collaborator(s)
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Developer(s)
Information Pending

Sponsoring Space Agency
Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos)

Sponsoring Organization
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Research Benefits
Information Pending

ISS Expedition Duration
April 2006 - September 2006

Expeditions Assigned
13

Previous Missions
Information Pending

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Experiment Description

Research Overview
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Description
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Applications

Space Applications
The scientific results of the experiment enable fundamental problems in biology to be solved, and the plant culturing technologies developed could be used in the future to create greenhouse facilities to be operated in remote regions of the Earth and in various structures with an enclosed living environment. The results of the experiment could be used to draft educational materials and encyclopedic publications. It should be highlighted that during experiments in the Lada greenhouse on the ISS, a school science program to study plants in microgravity was developed and Mikrolada equipment for participants to use was created. Students from several high schools in Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Japan (Okayama prefecture), and the USA (Utah) grew pea and super dwarf wheat plants in parallel with ISS crews. The results obtained have been presented on many occasions by participants at municipal and Russian national conferences, and have been discussed on specially created websites and in international teleconferences.

Earth Applications
In the future, the results of the experiment could be used to develop plant cultivating technologies in integrated systems for crew life support on interplanetary missions, lunar bases, etc. This work has high applied value, because in the process of creating and operating the space greenhouse, cutting-edge equipment and software was developed, making it possible to grow plants automatically. The psycho-physiological aspect of human-plant interaction was also studied in an enclosed living environment and data were obtained on the safety of growing plant biomass for human consumption on a space station. These data are of great interest in design work for the creation of productive greenhouses as parts of future life support systems of any habitable complexes beyond the Earth’s biosphere.

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Operations

Operational Requirements and Protocols
Lada greenhouse consisting of: Control unit; Lighting unit; Leaf chamber; Root module; Water canister. Being a module-type system, the Lada greenhouse ensures maximum flexibility, its dimensions are decreased by four times as compared to the Svet similar greenhouse used on board the Mir OC. Mounting and preparation of equipment for experiment performance. Study of specific features of water-air mode of the Lada greenhouse vegetation vessel in space flight conditions. Study of plants cultivation technology (Mizuna lettuce, Micro-Tom dwarfish tomatoes, dwarfish (red) pea) as applied to standard greenhouse devices. Study of the impact of space flight factors on the growth and evolution of plants which can be potentially used in space vitamin greenhouses. Study of germination and viability of plants. Study of phenology of plant evolution. Study of reproductive property of plants and production of the second generation of space seeds. Study of chemical composition of plants and seeds grown in zero-g conditions to define the content of nitrocompounds in vegetable biomass. Determination of ethylene concentration in the ISS RS atmosphere.

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Decadal Survey Recommendations

Information Pending

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Results/More Information

The equipment used, the Lada space research greenhouse , makes it possible to study the growth, morphogenesis, and development of model cultures of higher plants for future life support systems, and to optimize the modes of plant cultivation in long-term spaceflight. In the experiment, the following plants were used: peas, mizuna, wheat, radishes, and barley. The series of experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) in Lada demonstrated that growth, development, and the duration of the cycle of plant ontogenetic development “from seed to seed” does not depend on spaceflight conditions. No impact of spaceflight factors was identified on such crucial higher plant functions as the development of reproductive organs, formation of spores and gametocytes, fertilization, and the formation of buds and reserve seed substances. The seeds of higher plants formed in the absence of gravity were biologically fully viable, and the plants obtained from these seeds did not differ from typical “Earth” plants. The morphological and biometric indicators and indicators of the photosynthetic activity of higher plants grown in the Lada greenhouse did not differ in any significant way from similar indicators in control plants grown on Earth. In spaceflight conditions, four consecutive generations of pea seeds were obtained, whose growth and development characteristics did not significantly differ from those in control plants on Earth. Therefore, for the first time, it was demonstrated that plants can be grown for an extended time comparable to the duration of a mission to Mars without losing reproductive functions, and can produce viable seeds in these conditions. The capability to indicate contamination of the air in an orbiting station biologically was demonstrated using plants.

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Results Publications

    Shagimardanova E, Gusev OA, Sychev VN, Levinskikh MA, Sharipova MR, Il'inskaya ON, Bingham GE, Sugimoto M.  Expression of Stress Response Genes in Barley Hordeum Vulgare in a Spaceflight Environment. Molecular Biology. 2010 October 12; 44(5): 734-740. DOI: 10.1134/S0026893310050080.

    Berkovich YA, Krivobok NM, Siniak IE, Smolianshchina SO, Grigorev II, Romanov S, Guzenberg AS.  The problem of developing a lettuce greenhouse for the International space station and future interplanetary missions. Aviakosmicheskaia i Ekologicheskaia Meditsina (Aerospace and Environmental Medicine). 2002; 36(5): 8-12. PMID: 12572116.

    Shagimardanova E, Gusev OA, Bingham GE, Levinskikh MA, Sychev VN, Tiansu Z, Kihara M, Ito K, Sugimoto M.  Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Capacity in Barley Grown Under Space Environment. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 2010; 74(7): 1479-1482. DOI: 10.1271/bbb.100139. PMID: 20622437.

    Levinskikh MA, Sychev VN, Derendiaeva TA, Signalova OB, Podolski IG, Gostimsky SA, Bingham GE.  Growth, development and genetic status of pea plants cultivated in space greenhouse. Aviakosmicheskaia i Ekologicheskaia Meditsina (Aerospace and Environmental Medicine). 2005; 39(6): 38-43. PMID: 16536032. [Russian]

    Sychev VN, Levinskikh MA, Gostimsky SA, Bingham GE, Podolski IG.  Spaceflight effects on consecutive generations of peas grown onboard the Russian segment of the International Space Station. Acta Astronautica. 2007; 60: 426-432. DOI: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.09.009.

    Gostimsky SA, Levinskikh MA, Sychev VN, Kokaeva ZG, Dribnokhodova OP, Khartina GA, Bingham GE.  The Study of the Genetic Effects in Generation of Pea Plants Cultivated During the Whole Cycle of Ontogenesis on the Board of RS ISS. Russian Journal of Genetics. 2007 August; 43(8): 869-874. DOI: 10.1134/S1022795407080066. [Russian. Also: Original Russian Text © S.A. Gostimsky, M.A. Levinskikh, V.N. Sychev, Z.G. Kokaeva, O.P. Dribnokhodova, G.A. Khartina, G. Bingham, 2007, published in Genetika, 2007, Vol. 43, No. 8, pp. 1050–1057. PMID: 17958304.  ]

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Ground Based Results Publications

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ISS Patents

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Related Publications

    Levinskikh MA, Sychev VN, Derendiaeva TA, Signalova OB, Podolski IG, Avdeev S, Bingham GE.  Growth and development of plants in a row of generations under the conditions of space flight (experiment Greenhouse-5). Aviakosmicheskaia i Ekologicheskaia Meditsina (Aerospace and Environmental Medicine). 2001; 35(4): 45-49. PMID: 11668959. [Russian]

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Related Websites
Energia - Science Research on the ISS Russian Segment

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Imagery

image NASA Image: ISS009E24154 - View inside the LADA hardware at radish plants grown on ISS Expedition 9.
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image Cosmonaut Sergei Treshchev with the LADA hardware opened to reveal the mizuna lettuce that was grown during ISS Expedition 5.
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image NASA Image: ISS007E05298 - Close-up view of dried pea pods that have gone to seed in the Russian Lada greenhouse located in the Zvezda Service Module. They are part of an experiment to investigate plant development and genetics. The crew of the International Space Station (ISS) will soon harvest the seeds. Eventually, some will be re-planted onboard the ISS and some will be returned to Earth for further study.
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image NASA Image: ISS008E21915 - Expedition 8 Commander Michael Foale (left) and Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri pose beside the pea plants growing in the LADA-4 greenhouse as part of the Rastenia (Plants) experiment located in the Destiny U.S. Laboratory.
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image NASA Image: ISS013E61500 - View of plant growth in a root tray inside the LADA greenhouse for the BIO-5 Rasteniya-2 (Plants-2) experiment in the Service Module (SM)/Zvezda. Photo taken during Expedition 13.
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image NASA Image: ISS013E86945 - View of plant growth in a root tray inside the LADA greenhouse for the BIO-5 Rasteniya-2 (Plants-2) experiment in the Service Module (SM)/Zvezda. Photo taken during Expedition 13.
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image NASA Image: ISS013E84325 - View of Spaceflight Participant, Anousheh Ansari, posing for a photo with plants in a root tray from the Lada greenhouse which are part of the BIO-5 Rasteniya-2 (Plants-2) experiment. Photo taken in the Service Module/Zvezda during the Expedition 13/ Expedition 14 crew rotation period.
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image NASA Image: ISS014E15479 - Cosmonaut Mikhail Tyurin, Expedition 14 Flight Engineer, performs his regular daily inspection of the BIO-5 Rasteniya-2 (Plants-2) experiment in the Russian Lada greenhouse in the Zvezda Service Module.
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image NASA Image: ISS015E17712 - View of Expedition 15 cosmonaut and Flight Engineer, Oleg Kotov, working on the installation of Plants-1 LADA-MIS (Module for the Investigation of Substrates) experiment hardware in the in the Service Module (SM)/Zvezda. Kotov is holding a greenhouse.
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image NASA Image: ISS015E18148 - View of Expedition 15 cosmonaut and Flight Engineer, Oleg Kotov, working on the installation of Plants-1 LADA-MIS (Module for the Investigation of Substrates) experiment hardware in the in the Service Module (SM)/Zvezda.
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image NASA Image: ISS016E031242 - Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition 16 flight engineer representing Russia's Federal Space Agency, checks the progress of pea plants growing in the Russian Lada greenhouse in the Zvezda Service Module of the ISS.
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