Matroshka-1 (Matroshka-1) - 05.24.17

Overview | Description | Applications | Operations | Results | Publications | Imagery

ISS Science for Everyone

Science Objectives for Everyone
Information Pending
Science Results for Everyone
An astronaut’s skin absorbs as much as 20 times more space radiation than do the organs deep inside the body. So what is the actual dose an individual receives? Based on a determination that radiation dose declines steeply in the first 8 mm of skin, researchers calculated an average dose rate for each critical organ. The calculated skin dose rate of the outermost 3 mm, about 1 mGy/day, is by far the highest, followed by that for the eye. Dose rates for other organs, with the exception of breast and salivary glands, range from 0.2 to 0.3 mGy/day. These depth-dose distribution characteristics can serve as benchmarks for future mission medical planning.

The following content was provided by Jozsef K. Palfalvi, and is maintained in a database by the ISS Program Science Office.
Information provided courtesy of the Erasmus Experiment Archive.
Experiment Details


Principal Investigator(s)
Günter Reitz, Ph.D., Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Köln, Germany

Rudolf Beaujean, Ph.D., University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany
W Heinrich, Dr, Universitat GH Siegen, Siegen, Germany
Francis A. Cucinotta, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, United States
V M. Petrov, Institute of Medical and Biological Problems of Russian Academy of Sciences (IMBP RAS), Moscow, Russia
Pawel Olko, Institute for Nuclear Physics, Krakow, Poland
Sandor Deme, KFKI Atomic Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary
Epaminondas G. Stassinopoulos, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, United States
Jack Miller, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, United States
Cary Zeitlin, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, United States
Jozsef K. Palfalvi, Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary
Pawel Bilski, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow, Poland

Information Pending

Sponsoring Space Agency
European Space Agency (ESA)

Sponsoring Organization
Information Pending

Research Benefits
Information Pending

ISS Expedition Duration
April 2004 - October 2005

Expeditions Assigned

Previous Missions
Information Pending

^ back to top

Experiment Description

Research Overview
Information Pending

Information Pending

^ back to top


Space Applications
Information Pending

Earth Applications
Information Pending

^ back to top


Operational Requirements and Protocols
Information Pending

^ back to top

Decadal Survey Recommendations

Information Pending

^ back to top

Results/More Information

The relationships between the skin and organ absorbed doses obtained in such an exposure show a steep gradient between the doses in the uppermost layer of the skin and the deep organs with a ratio close to 20. This decrease due to the body self-shielding and a concomitant increase of the radiation quality factor by 1.7 highlight the complexities of an adequate dosimetry of space radiation. The figure to the left shows the interpolated depth distribution of dose rates including the skin measurement. It highlights the very steep decline within the first 8 mm by a factor of about ten. From this depth-dose distribution, an average organ dose rate was determined for each critical organ as the average of the dose rates in those volume elements that were assigned to it in the voxel model. The corresponding results are given in Table associated with the Figure. The calculated skin dose rate represents an average of the outermost 3 mm. With about 1 mGy/day, it is by far the highest, followed by the dose rate in the eye. With the exception of the breast and the salivary glands, the dose rates for the other organs are in the range from 0.2 to 0.3 mGy/day.The depth-dose distributions established by Matroshka serve as benchmarks for space radiation models and radiation transport calculations that are needed for mission planning. 

^ back to top

Results Publications

    Durante M, Reitz G, Angerer O.  Space radiation research in Europe: flight experiments and ground-based studies. Radiation and Environmental Biophysics. 2010 August; 49(3): 295-302. DOI: 10.1007/s00411-010-0300-6. PMID: 20532544.

    Berger T, Bilski P, Hajek M, Puchalska M, Reitz G.  The MATROSHKA experiment: Results and comparison from extravehicular activity (MTR-1) and intravehicular activity (MTR-2A/2B) exposure. Radiation Research. 2013 November 19; 180(6): 622-637. DOI: 10.1667/RR13148.1. PMID: 24252101.

    Dettmann J, Reitz G, Gianfiglio G.  MATROSHKA—The First ESA External Payload on the International Space Station. Acta Astronautica. 2007 January; 60(1): 17-23. DOI: 10.1016/jactaastro.2006.04.018.

    Reitz G, Berger T.  The MATROSHKA Facility--dose Determination During an EVA. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 2006 April 27; 120(1-4): 442-445. DOI: 10.1093/rpd/nci558. PMID: 16644992.

    Zhou D, Semones E, O'Sullivan D, Zapp EN, Weyland MD, Reitz G, Berger T, Benton ER.  Radiation measured for MATROSHKA-1 experiment with passive dosimeters. Acta Astronautica. 2010 January; 66(1-2): 301-308. DOI: 10.1016/l.actaastro.2009.06.014.

    Beck P, Zechner A, Rollet S, Berger T, Bergmann R, Hajek M, Hranitzky C, Latocha M, Reitz G, Stadtmann H, Vana N, Wind M.  MATSIM: Development of a Voxel Model of the MATROSHKA Astronaut Dosimetric Phantom. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 2011 August; 58(4): 1921-1926. DOI: 10.1109/TNS.2011.2157704.

    Zhou D, O'Sullivan D, Semones E, Zapp EN, Benton ER.  Research on sensitivity fading of CR-39 detectors during long time exposure. Radiation Measurements. 2009 October; 44(9-10): 909-912. DOI: 10.1016/j.radmeas.2009.09.004.

    Reitz G, Berger T, Bilski P, Facius R, Hajek M, Petrov VP, Puchalska M, Zhou D, Bossler J, Akatov YA, Shurshakov VA, Olko P, Ptaszliewicz M, Bergmann R, Fugger M, Vana N, Beaujean R, Burmeister S, Bartlett D, Hager L, Palfalvi JK, Szabó J, O'Sullivan D, Kitamura H, Uchihori Y, Yasuda N, Nagamatsu A, Tawara H, Benton ER, Gaza R, McKeever SW, Sawakuchi G, Yukihara EG, Cucinotta FA, Semones E, Zapp EN, Miller J, Dettmann J.  Astronaut's Organ Doses Inferred from Measurements in a Human Phantom Outside the International Space Station. Radiation Research. 2009 February; 171(2): 225-235. DOI: 10.1667/RR1559.1.

    Sihver L, Puchalska M, Sato T, Berger T, Reitz G.  Monte Carlo Simulations of MATROSHKA Experiment Outside ISS. 2011 IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, MT; 2011

    Bilski P, Hajek M, Berger T, Reitz G.  Comparison of the response of various TLDs to cosmic radiation and ion beams: Current results of the HAMLET project. Radiation Measurements. 2011 April; 46(12): 1680-1685. DOI: 10.1016/j.radmeas.2011.03.023.

    Petrov VP, Kartashov DA, Akatov YA, Kolomensky AV, Shurshakov VA.  Comparison of Space Radiation Doses Inside the Matroshka-torso Phantom Installed Outside the ISS with the Doses in a Cosmonaut Body in Orlan-M Spacesuit During EVA. Acta Astronautica. 2011; 68(9-10): 1448-1453. DOI: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2010.06.002.

^ back to top

Ground Based Results Publications

^ back to top

ISS Patents

^ back to top

Related Publications

    Gustafsson K, Sihver L, Mancusi D, Sato T, Reitz G, Berger T.  PHITS simulations of the Matroshka experiment. Advances in Space Research. 2010 November; 46(10): 1266-1272. DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2010.05.028.

    Puchalska M, Bilski P, Berger T, Hajek M, Horwacik T, Körner C, Olko P, Shurshakov VA, Reitz G.  NUNDO: a numerical model of a human torso phantom and its application to effective dose equivalent calculations for astronauts at the ISS. Radiation and Environmental Biophysics. 2014 November; 53(4): 719-727. DOI: 10.1007/s00411-014-0560-7. PMID: 25119442.

    Sihver L, Sato T, Puchalska M, Reitz G.  Simulations of the MATROSHKA experiment at the international space station using PHITS. Radiation and Environmental Biophysics. 2010 May 25; 49(3): 351-357. DOI: 10.1007/s00411-010-0288-y.

    Szabó J, Palfalvi JK.  Calibration of solid state nuclear track detectors at high energy ion beams for cosmic radiation measurements: HAMLET results. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 2012 December; 694: 193-198. DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2012.08.010.

    Sihver L, Sato T, Gustafsson K, Shurshakov VA, Reitz G.  Simulations of the MTR-R and MTR experiments at ISS, and shielding properties using PHITS. 2009 IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, MT; 2009 March 7-14 8 pp.

    Powell J.  Phantom heads and Matroshka. Spaceflight. 2011; 53(12): 464-467.

^ back to top

Related Websites

^ back to top