Research on the Particulars of Pharmacological Effects During Long-term Spaceflight (Pharma) (Pharma) - 05.09.18

Overview | Description | Applications | Operations | Results | Publications | Imagery

ISS Science for Everyone

Science Objectives for Everyone
Research on the Particulars of Pharmacological Effects During Long-term Spaceflight (Pharma) provides information on absorption, distribution, and excretion of pharmaceuticals during spaceflight. The objective is to conduct an integrated study of the mechanism of change in the pharmacokinetics of drugs during long-term spaceflight.
Science Results for Everyone
Take two super-powered capsules and do not call me in the morning. In space, doses of acetaminophen are more powerful than on Earth. This research also showed that space-flight conditions do not disrupt liver function, making it unlikely that changes occur in the first-pass effect, a phenomenon by which organs such as the liver reduce the dose before a drug reaches its target. This study of the mechanism of drug absorption and elimination was also the first to compare the effectiveness of tablet versus capsule forms of acetaminophen. The data show that capsules are preferable to tablets for treatment in spaceflight.

The following content was provided by I B. Goncharov, M.D., and is maintained in a database by the ISS Program Science Office.
Experiment Details

OpNom:

Principal Investigator(s)
I B. Goncharov, M.D., Institute of Medical and Biological Problems of Russian Academy of Sciences (IMBP RAS), Russia

Co-Investigator(s)/Collaborator(s)
Information Pending

Developer(s)
Information Pending

Sponsoring Space Agency
Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos)

Sponsoring Organization
Information Pending

Research Benefits
Information Pending

ISS Expedition Duration
March 2001 - December 2002; November 2002 - May 2003; April 2003 - October 2005

Expeditions Assigned
2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11

Previous Missions
Information Pending

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Experiment Description

Research Overview
Information Pending

Description
Information Pending

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Applications

Space Applications
The information obtained on the particulars of absorption, distribution, and excretion of the drug make it possible to note general patterns of changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in microgravity, to determine the main tiers of disruption of these processes, and to develop corrective measures. The results obtained must be considered when determining a schedule of drug therapy during long-term manned spaceflights as well as for pharmaceuticals having negative side effects complicating the ingestion of acetaminophen. The complex, non-invasive studies performed aboard the International Space Station of the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen make it possible to optimize dosages and schedules of drug therapy and to minimize medical risks when selecting non-narcotic painkiller medications in spaceflight conditions.

Earth Applications
If a long-term (1 month or more) course of drug therapy is necessary, a non-invasive method for evaluating the kinetics of pharmaceuticals makes it possible to constantly monitor the level of the medication in the body, thereby determining its therapeutic efficacy. The use of non-invasive methods for evaluating the effectiveness of medications in order to optimize the schedule of preventive and therapeutic assistance and to minimize medical risks is justified not only in conditions of orbital and interplanetary spaceflight missions but in other extreme conditions: at polar stations, during long-term submarine voyages, etc.

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Operations

Operational Requirements and Protocols
Information Pending

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Decadal Survey Recommendations

Information Pending

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Results/More Information

For the first time during spaceflight, the bioavailability of a drug was studied. It was shown that after a single dose of the drug in spaceflight conditions, the relative biological availability of acetaminophen was significantly higher in the majority of flight test subjects than in baseline studies. Research on liver function after ingestion of acetaminophen showed that spaceflight conditions did not lead to disruption of liver function, therefore it was unlikely that a change in the first-pass effect, which occurs in the liver, would be the key point in the change observed in the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen. It was also the first time a comparative study was performed on the pharmacokinetics of tablet versus capsule forms of acetaminophen. It was shown that the capsule form of acetaminophen was preferable to the tablet form when taken for treatment purposes in spaceflight.

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Results Publications

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Ground Based Results Publications

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ISS Patents

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Related Publications

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Related Websites
Energia - Science Research on the ISS Russian Segment

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Imagery

image A Saliva F kit.
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image The Reflotron-4 equipment.
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