Examination of the Influencing Factors of Space Flight on Autonomic Regulation of Blood Circulation, Respiration and Cardiac Contractile Function in Long Duration Space Flight (Pnevmocard (Pneumocard)) - 10.25.17

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ISS Science for Everyone

Science Objectives for Everyone
Pneumocard is an integrated study of the adaptation of the cardiovascular system of crewmembers during a long-duration microgravity mission.
Science Results for Everyone
Coming back to Earth can be hard on your heart. This integrated study provided the first comprehensive data on function and adaptation of the cardiovascular system at various stages of long-duration microgravity exposure. The results show that crewmembers tolerated flight well and that cardiovascular control remains stable during long flights. The most pronounced changes occurred after landing, although most values returned to preflight levels within five to seven days. This suggests functional adaptation rather than physical changes during flight. It also confirms that heart rate variability can be an important tool in monitoring individual adaptation to microgravity. 

The following content was provided by Roman M. Baevsky, M.D., and is maintained in a database by the ISS Program Science Office.
Experiment Details


Principal Investigator(s)
Roman M. Baevsky, M.D., Institute of Medical and Biological Problems of Russian Academy of Sciences (IMBP RAS), Moscow, Russia

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Sponsoring Space Agency
Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos)

Sponsoring Organization
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Research Benefits
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ISS Expedition Duration
April 2008 - March 2013

Expeditions Assigned

Previous Missions
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Experiment Description

Research Overview
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Acquiring new scientific information to refine the understanding about the mechanisms of adapting the cardiorespiratory system and the whole organism to space flight conditions. Integrated study of a cardiovascular system of astronauts in various phases of a long-duration mission in order to clarify the adaptation mechanisms and phases and determine diagnostic criteria for individual assessment of the organism adaptation to zero-gravity conditions. Study of the synchronization of heart activity and breathing factors, as well as the cardiorespiratory system control processes based on variability rate of physiological parameters. Study of interconnection between the cardiorespiratory system during a long-duration mission and tolerance of orthostatic and physical activities at the beginning of readaptation for predicting possible reactions of the crewmembers organism during the their return to ground.

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Space Applications
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Earth Applications
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Operational Requirements and Protocols
Four kits with ten seeds Astronium fraxinifolium in each are used in the experiment. Two kits shall be exposed in the light, the rest shall be exposed in the dark. The seeds germinate at the temperatures from +20 to +30 degrees C and at a low concentration of oxygen (3%). Activation of the germination process is performed through seeds wetting using the enclosed syringe with water. To determine the germination rate and germ phenotype, photography by onboard camera is used. Laptop is used for the following processing of digital photos and their preparation for downlink.
The following physiological data will be recorded during the experiment: Electrocardiogram; Impedance cardiogram; Low-frequency phonocardiogram (seismocardiogram); Pneumotachogram (using nose temperature sensors) Finger photopletismogram. All physiological data will be recorded on the PCMCIA card, which will be downloaded upon completion of the increment.

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Decadal Survey Recommendations

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Results/More Information

To date, the main focus of researchers has been on investigating peripheral blood flow as the leading activation mechanism for the body’s reaction to orthostatic loading, and virtually no attention has been paid in studies of heart function in microgravity. The investigations carried out on the ISS using the Pnevmocard system were fundamentally a first in space medicine in which comprehensive material was obtained on hemodynamics, heart contractile function, and its regulation. The results of the Pnevmocard experiment showed that crew members tolerated flight well, fairly fully adapted to long-term microgravity, and their reactions to various flight stages is entirely adequate. This points to the high functional reserves of regulation systems during flight. In the postflight period according to data from orthostatic testing, the body’s functional reserves were also maintained at a sufficiently high level.

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Results Publications

    Eshmanova AK, Luchitskaya ES.  Study of cardiac rhythm variability during 7-day exposure to “dry” immersion. 5th All-Russian Conference on Analyzing Heart Rate Variability, Izhevsk, Russia ; 2011 October 26-28

    Baevsky RM, Baranov VM, Bogomolov VV.  Experiments "Pulse" and "Pneumocard" aboard the International Space Station. The prospects for development of an automated medical monitoring system. 54th International Astronautical Congress, Bremen, Germany; 2003 September 29 - October 3

    Baevsky RM, Luchitskaya ES, Funtova II, Chernikova AG.  Study of the autonomic regulation of blood circulation during a long-term space flight. Human Physiology. 2013 October 11; 39(5): 486-495. DOI: 10.1134/S0362119713050046.

    Baevsky RM, Funtova II, Diedrich A, Pashchenko AV, Chernikova AG, Drescher J, Baranov VM, Tank J.  Autonomic Function Testing on Board the ISS - update on "Pneumocard". Acta Astronautica. 2007 October; 61(7-8): 672-675. DOI: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.11.017. [Also: Baevsky R.M, Funtova I.I., Diedrich A., Chernikova A.G., Tank J. Autonomic function testing aboard the ISS using "PNEUMOCARD". 58-th Congress IAA, Hyderabad, India, September, 2007. Also: R.M. Baevsky, I.I. Funtova, A. Diedrich, A.V. Pashenko, A.G. Chernikova, J. Drescher, V.M. Baranov, J. Tank, Autonomic Function Testing on board the ISS—Update on “Pneumocard”, 56 IAF, Fukuoka, Japan, 2005.]

    Baevsky RM, Funtova II, Luchitskaya ES, Chernikova AG.  The effects of long-term microgravity on autonomic regulation of blood circulation in crewmembers of the international space station. Cardiometry. 2014 November 14(5): 35-49. DOI: 10.12710/cardiometry.2014.5.3549.

    Baevsky RM, Okhritsky AA, Pashchenko AV, Prilutsky DA, Funtova II.  Medical polygraph software for scientific research. Meditsinskaia Tekhnika (Biomedical Engineering). 2007; 1: 19-24.

    Baevsky RM, Chernikova AG, Funtova II, Tank J.  Assessment of individual adaptation to microgravity during long term space flight based on stepwise discriminant analysis of heart rate variability parameters. Acta Astronautica. 2011 December; 69(11-12): 1148-1152. DOI: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2011.07.011. [Also: Funtova I.I.; Chernikova А.G.; Baevsky R.M. Assessment of Individual Adaptation to Microgravity during long term space flight based  on stepwise Discriminant Analysis of Heart Rate Variability Parameters. 17th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Moscow, Russia 2009.]

    Baevsky RM, Funtova II, Tank J.  Research experiment "Pneumocard" onboard the International space station. 14th Congress of the International Society for Holter and Noninvasive Electrocardiology, Moscow, Russia  ; 2011 April

    Luchitskaya ES, Chernikova AG, Funtova II, Baevsky RM.  Analysis of cardiac rhythm variability in space medicine. Results of studies on the International Space Station. 4th Russian National Congress on Clinical Electrocardiology, Velikiy Novgorod, Russia; 2010 April 28-29 62-63.

    Funtova II, Baevsky RM, Luchitskaya ES, Slepchenkova IN, Drescher J, Tank J.  Day- vs. night time heart rate variability changes in microgravity: experiments "Pneumocard" and "Sonocard". 62nd International Astronautical Congress, Cape Town, South Africa; 2011

    Baranov VM, Baevsky RM, Drescher J, Tank J.  Investigations of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems on board the international space station: experiments PULS and PNEUMOCARD. 53rd International Astronautical Congress, The World Space Congress, Houston, TX; 2002 October 10-19

    Baevsky RM, Baranov VM, Funtova II, Diedrich A, Pashenko AV, Chernikova AG, Drescher J, Jordan J, Tank J.  Autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory control during prolonged spaceflights aboard the International Space Station. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2007 July; 103(1): 156-161. DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00137.2007. PMID: 17446414.

    Funtova II, Chernikova AG, Fedorova IN, Baranov VM, Tank J, Baevsky RM.  Some results of scientific experiment “Pneumocard” aboard the International space station. 17th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Moscow, Russia; 2009

    Chernikova AG, Baevsky RM, Funtova II.  The probability approach to an estimation of risk of a pathology at cosmonauts according to analysis HRV. 14th Congress of the International Society for Holter and Noninvasive Electrocardiology, Moscow, Russia  ; 2011 April

    Funtova II, Luchitskaya ES, Slepchenkova IN, Tank J, Baevsky RM.  Comparative assessment of the results of day and night studies of cardiac rhythm variability on board the International Space Station. 5th All-Russian Conference on Analyzing Heart Rate Variability, Izhevsk, Russia ; 2011 October 26-28

    Baevsky RM, Bersenev YY, Luchitskaya ES, Funtova II, Chernikova AG.  Studies of the vegetative regulation of the cardiovascular system in long-term weightlessness. Space Forum 2011 Dedicated on 50th Anniversary for Yu. A. Gagarin Flight, Moscow, Russia; 2011 October

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Ground Based Results Publications

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ISS Patents

    Baranov VM, Baevsky RM, Pashchenko AV, Shmelev SI.  Mobile device for comprehensively examining the cardio-respiratory system of cosmonauts. Federal Service for Intellectual Property.58886. December 10 2006.

    Baevsky RM, Baranov VM, Bersenev YY, Funtova II, Semyonov YN, Grigoriev AI, Prilutsky DA.  Method of determining functional reserves for regulating the human cardio-respiratory system. Federal Service for Intellectual Property.2240035. November 20 2004.

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Related Publications

    Slepchenkova IN, Luchitskaya ES.  Use of the Sonocard and Pneumocard onboard complexes in a 105-Day experiment for the MARS-500 Project. 4th European Congress Medicine in Space and in Extreme Environments Achievements for Health Care on Earth, Berlin, Germany; 2010

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Related Websites
Energia - Science Research on the ISS Russian Segment

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