Mechanism of Activity and Effectiveness of Various Countermeasures Intended to Prevent Disruptions to the Motor Apparatus in Microgravity (Profilaktika-1 (Prophylaxis-1)) (Profilaktika-1 (Prophylaxis-1)) - 05.09.18

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Science Objectives for Everyone
The Mechanism of Activity and Effectiveness of Various Countermeasures Intended to Prevent Disruptions to the Motor Apparatus in Microgravity (Profilaktika-1 (Prophylaxis-1)) investigation is designed to assess the effectiveness of various physical exercise regimens in maintaining the body's adaptive capabilities in microgravity through the use of tests based on the use of modern measurement technologies. Each session of the experiment consists of several tests: locomotion (on the treadmill), cycle ergometer (on the cycle ergometer), and strength (using the force loader). During each test, gas analysis and blood analysis are performed, and an EKG was recorded.
Science Results for Everyone
In space you should run and walk. Physical activity counteracts many of microgravity’s effects on the human body, but researchers learned some activities work better than others. Astronauts on the space station showed significant decline in conditioning early in flight followed by recovery to preflight or near-preflight levels. The investigation also compared various modes of physical training and found interval training – alternating intensive walking and quick running—to be much more effective at maintaining muscle than training at moderate capacity. Running and walking were also found to be more effective than cycling because those activities place more load on the body.  

The following content was provided by Inessa B. Kozlovskaya, M.D., Ph.D., D.Sc., and is maintained in a database by the ISS Program Science Office.
Experiment Details


Principal Investigator(s)
Inessa B. Kozlovskaya, M.D., Ph.D., D.Sc., Institute of Biomedical Problems, Moscow, Russia

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Sponsoring Space Agency
Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos)

Sponsoring Organization
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Research Benefits
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ISS Expedition Duration
December 2001 - June 2002; April 2003 - April 2006; September 2006 - October 2007; April 2008 - October 2008

Expeditions Assigned

Previous Missions
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Experiment Description

Research Overview
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Space Applications
The countermeasures system for short-term missions prevents the development of dehydration, orthostatic instability, physical deconditioning, and loss of muscular and vascular tone. If the duration of the flight extends to several months or a year, the countermeasures program is aimed at minimizing the effects of weightlessness and other detrimental factors, reducing the medical risk in flight, and easing the process of readaptation after return to Earth. Despite the use of countermeasures, during and after long-term spaceflights various bodily systems consistently exhibit a number of changes that are the residual manifestations of the effects of weightlessness. Based on the experimental data obtained, updates are being performed in the program for training cosmonauts for long-term spaceflights.

Earth Applications
The results of the experiment may be used for sports medicine, training civil aviation pilots, and training people for work in extreme conditions.

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Operational Requirements and Protocols
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Decadal Survey Recommendations

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Results/More Information

The results of the Profilaktika experiment indicated that the crew member’s state of physical conditioning has clearly marked phases. During the first phase, their performance declined significantly, with subsequent restoration of the preflight (or near-preflight) level. This pattern was clearly reflected in the results of all tests. It must also be noted that the cost of the locomotion load was significantly higher than that of the cycle ergometer. This may be related to the fact that during performance of a running test with a load equivalent to 70% of one's body weight—a load that is absent during the cycle ergometer test—the physiological cost was determined through activity, not just dynamically, but through the tonic muscle system, which required greater expenditures to support its functionality.

Comparative analysis of the various modes of physical training used aboard the International Space Station demonstrated the high effectiveness of intense exercise characterized by sequencing intensive walking and quick running (so-called interval training) and the significantly lower effectiveness of training in the moderate capacity zone with an aerobic energy supply. Interval training provides a high level of physical performance and levels out the negative changes in the oxygen transport system caused by microgravity. The mechanisms of energy supply for muscle activity remained at the preflight level in a group of crew members who performed interval training in the course of one flight, while another group who trained at lower intensity exhibited a significantly higher physiological and energy costs (less efficient). Analysis of physical performance showed a significantly higher level in the locomotion test, which makes it possible to assess not only the level of physical conditioning. It was also possible to asses the physiological load caused by the need to maintain posture, which is reflected in the magnitude of shifts in autonomous functions and in energy supply mechanisms.

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Results Publications

    Popov DV, Khusnutdinova DR, Shenkman BS, Vinogradova OL, Kozlovskaya IB.  Dynamics of Physical Performance During Long-Duration SPace Flight (First Results of "Countermeasure" Experiment). Journal of Gravitational Physiology. 2004 Jul; 11(2): 231-232. PMID: 16240524.

    Fomina EV, Lysova NY, Savinkina AO.  Axial load during the performance of locomotor training in microgravity as a factor of hypogravity countermeasure efficiency. Human Physiology. 2018 January 1; 44(1): 47-53. DOI: 10.1134/S0362119718010061. [Original Russian Text © E.V. Fomina, N.Y. Lysova, A.O. Savinkina, 2018, published in Fiziologiya Cheloveka, 2018, Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 56–63.]

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Ground Based Results Publications

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ISS Patents

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Related Publications

    Kozlovskaya IB, Yarmanova EN, Fomina EV.  The Russian system of preventive countermeasures: Its present and future. Human Physiology. 2015 December 22; 41(7): 704-711. DOI: 10.1134/S0362119715070075. [Original Russian Text © I.B. Kozlovskaya, E.N. Yarmanova, E.V. Fomina, 2013, published in Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina, 2013, Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 13–20.]

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Related Websites
Energia - Science Research on the ISS Russian Segment

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