Studying the Impact of Streams of Heavy Charged Particles from Space Radiation on the Genetic Properties of Cells in Producers of Biologically Active Substances (Biotrack-A) - 03.07.18

Overview | Description | Applications | Operations | Results | Publications | Imagery

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Science Objectives for Everyone
Studying the Impact of Streams of Heavy Charged Particles from Space Radiation on the Genetic Properties of Cells in Producers of Biologically Active Substances (Biotrek) studies the long-duration effect of space radiation factors on cultures of recombinant strains of bacteria and fungi which produce biologically active substances in spaceflight, as well as their growth characteristics and plasmid segregation stability. Also, the investigation tests a technique for selecting highly productive strains from the cultures exposed in spaceflight, records and analyzes heavy nuclear tracks and total radiation dose.
Science Results for Everyone
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The following content was provided by O. E. Krasheninnikova, Tatiana K. Krasheninnikova, and is maintained in a database by the ISS Program Science Office.
Experiment Details

OpNom:

Principal Investigator(s)
O. E. Krasheninnikova, Russia
Tatiana K. Krasheninnikova, Institute for Applied Biochemistry and Machine Building (Biohimmash), Russia

Co-Investigator(s)/Collaborator(s)
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Developer(s)
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Sponsoring Space Agency
Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos)

Sponsoring Organization
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Research Benefits
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ISS Expedition Duration
April 2006 - March 2013

Expeditions Assigned
13,14,15,16,17,18,19/20,21/22,23/24,25/26,27/28,29/30,31/32,33/34

Previous Missions
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Experiment Description

Research Overview
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Description
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Applications

Space Applications
In order to effectively study and develop strategic technologies in the interests of long-term human space explorations, an important task is creating a bio-laboratory model in which laboratory production can be carried out. Currently, through conducting such space experiments as Biotrek, Kaskad, Aseptic, and Glovebox-C, baseline technologies are being sought and experimentally tested to obtain promising biological products in microgravity, to perfect the counterpart production on Earth, and to obtain fundamental knowledge on the impact of spaceflight factors on biological objects.

Earth Applications
Based on highly active strains of Arthrobacter sp. OC-1 and Arthrobacter sp. МИА-74 obtained after 2069 days of the experiment and a strain of Arthrobacter sp. МИП-89 obtained after 660 days of the experiment in prototype fermentation vessels with a capacity of 250 liters, a preparation of Rodart, a compound containing highly active bacteria which consume petroleum pollution from soil and bodies of water, was produced.

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Operations

Operational Requirements and Protocols
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Decadal Survey Recommendations

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Results/More Information

As a result of the Biotrek space experiment, four Bioekolgiya kits (4 cases per kit) were successfully delivered and all 16 were successfully returned. The space experiment was conducted from 93-2069 days, starting in ISS-14 and ending in ISS-34. Preserving the viability of the bacterial cultures on the International Space Station Russian Segment (ISS RS) to a great degree depended on the culture strain: if the museum strain in Earth conditions has a tendency for the cell concentration to decrease during storage, then the trend was maintained as a result of being on the ISS RS.

According to the macro-morphological assessment, the most stable properties were maintained in the museum strains and cultures exposed in vials. For cultures located throughout the entire experiment in solid and liquid nutrient media, a typical manifestation was a large number of different isolates in S (virulent strains) and R (non-virulent colonies) form. The number of dissociated forms within one type increased with experiment time, and also depended on the microorganism itself. Cultures in the space experiment which were in suspended form manifested polymorphism. The formation in a suspended culture of cells of varying lengths and varying stages of growth depended on the combination of the conditions in the culture. Culture productivity when cultured in liquid nutrient medium was at the level of standard laboratory indicators. The decrease in cell culture concentration in vials and in liquid nutrient medium after the end of the experiment did not have an impact on productivity; cultures fully recovered their properties upon multiple passaging to nutrient media in laboratory conditions. While studying the dissociated forms of cultures, it was shown that cultures stably retain the potential for active growth, and high cell concentrations were obtained when it is originally programmed in the genes of the cell by nature. All these parameters did not depend on the time a strain spent on the ISS RS and were comparable to ground controls.

For the first time in Russia, after the longest exposure time in the Biotrek experiment over 2069 days, results were obtained for bacterial culture strains of Arthrobacter sp. OC-1, Arthrobacter sp. МИА-74, Arthrobacter sp. МИП-89, Bacillus Licheniformis L-34, and of micromycetes Cylindrocarpon radicicola Wollenweber НТН-10, Mycelium sterilia ЛХ-1, Mycelium radicis ginseng НТН-1, and Mycelium radicis var. ledum (Phialocephala fortini) НЖ-13, demonstrating that these lyophilized bacterial and fungal cultures survived in solid nutrient medium and retained the main performance indicators. Also for the first time, a molecular and genetic comparison was conducted of in-flight, Earth, and collection samples of cultures of bacteria Arthrobacter sp. OC-1 and micromycetes Mycelium radicis var. ledum (Phialocephala fortini) НЖ-13. The comparative analysis of the versions of bacterial culture strains identifies genetic changes in the flight versions of the strains by fingerprinting demonstrated genomic changes in the culture strain Arthrobacter sp. OC-1 in the form of single-point replacements of individual nucleotides and slight deletion or inversion occurring both in Earth conditions and in space. New bacterial and fungal strains were obtained with enhanced growth and biosynthesis properties from the Biotrek experiment. All the bacterial cultures in the Biotrek experiment were lyophilized and added to the culture collection bank at the space biotechnology laboratory at ОАО Biokhimmash.

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Related Websites
Energia - Science Research on the ISS Russian Segment

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Imagery