Crew Autonomous Scheduling Test (CAST) - 09.06.17

Overview | Description | Applications | Operations | Results | Publications | Imagery

ISS Science for Everyone

Science Objectives for Everyone
Space missions beyond low-Earth orbit require new approaches to daily operations between ground and crew to account for significant communication delays. One approach is increased autonomy for crews, or Autonomous Mission Operations. The Crew Autonomous Scheduling Test (CAST) investigation analyzes whether crews can develop plans in a reasonable period of time with appropriate input, whether proximity of planners to the planned operations increases efficiency, and if crew members are more satisfied when given a role in plan development.
Science Results for Everyone
Information Pending

The following content was provided by Matthew D. Healy, Ph.D., and is maintained in a database by the ISS Program Science Office.
Experiment Details

OpNom: CAST

Principal Investigator(s)
Matthew D. Healy, Ph.D., NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, United States
Steven R. Hillenius, M.S., NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, United States
Crystal Larsen, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, United States
Jessica J. Marquez, Ph.D., NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, TX, United States

Co-Investigator(s)/Collaborator(s)
David Korth, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, United States
Lauren Rush Bakalyar, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, United States
Neil Woodbury, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, United States
Mikayla Kockler, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, United States
Shelby L. Bates, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, United States
Brooke M. Rhodes, M.S., NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, United States
William E. Moore, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, United States
Ivonne Deliz, M.S., NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, United States
Bob Kanefsky, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, United States
Jimin Zheng, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, United States
Ashley Henninger, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, United States

Developer(s)
NASA Johnson Space Center - Flight Operations Directorate, Houston, TX, United States
NASA Ames Research Center - Human Computer Interaction Group, Moffett Field, CA, United States

Sponsoring Space Agency
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

Sponsoring Organization
Technology Demonstration Office (TDO)

Research Benefits
Space Exploration, Earth Benefits

ISS Expedition Duration
September 2016 - September 2017

Expeditions Assigned
49/50,51/52

Previous Missions
Information Pending

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Experiment Description

Research Overview
National policy is evolving toward space missions beyond low Earth orbit. In an effort to meet this goal, NASA has identified Autonomous Mission Operations as a useful, if not prerequisite, technology. Identified within Autonomous Mission Operations is the potential for autonomous planning – crew members who, collectively or individually, participate in the development of tactical timelines. The major advantages being the proximity of those planning the operations to those doing the operations. This has obvious benefits for deep space operations. CAST (Crew Autonomous Scheduling Test) is an International Space Station (ISS) investigation designed to scientifically analyze three important hypotheses about Crew Autonomous Scheduling:  1) given appropriate inputs the crew is able to synthesize a plan in a reasonable period of time; 2) the proximity of the planner to the planned operations is more efficient; and 3) crew members are more satisfied when given a role in plan development.

Description
The main objective of the Crew Autonomous Scheduling Test (CAST) investigation is to determine if a crew self-scheduled day has negative impact on mission success. The ISS crew member is given a scheduling tool (Playbook) and a limited set of planning aids to create an individualized timeline that integrates with all other ISS operations on the day without sacrificing an objective that was listed on that day. A limited set of planning aids includes: objectives and priority list, a document of unmodeled scheduling constraints, a scheduling tool (Playbook which models most constraints), and daily Summary like information. An individualized timeline is limited to one crew member scheduling only the activities on their band. A second objective is to determine if there is a difference in crew efficiency when executing a self-scheduled day. The difference in the total chargeable crew time checked as complete on an individualized timeline is greater than the amount of chargeable crew time checked as completed on the average timeline across the increment adjusted for holidays, sleep shifts, and available crew hours. The third objective is to determine if crew self-scheduling affects crew satisfaction when executing a self-scheduled day. Finally, results are evaluated to see the difference in expended ground resources when the crew self-schedules a day versus full ground planning by ensuring that all objectives targeted for a given day are successfully planned by the crew affect the amount of time spent by the ground team by less than 10% regardless of the prudent, success oriented, ground support model used to enable crew self-scheduling.

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Applications

Space Applications
Space operations beyond low-Earth orbit need to balance crew autonomy with management by ground to ensure overall mission success. Benefits of increased autonomy on deep space operations include the proximity of those planning operations to those conducting them and increased crew satisfaction.

Earth Applications
Tools that increase crew autonomy in space have potential applications to isolated and remote operations on Earth such as research stations in Antarctica, offshore activities, and military deployments.

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Operations

Operational Requirements and Protocols
An ISS crew member is given a scheduling tool (Playbook) and a limited set of planning aids to create an individualized timeline that integrates with all other ISS operations on the day without sacrificing an objective that was listed on that day. In this test the crew time allocated to create the individualized timeline is one hour or less.

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Decadal Survey Recommendations

Information Pending

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Results/More Information

Information Pending

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Related Websites
Ames Technology Capabilities and Facilities
Flight Operations Directorate

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Imagery

image NASA Image: ISS052E016214 - Astronaut Peggy Whitson is photographed in the Destiny Lab during the Crew Autonomous Scheduling Test (CAST) session. The CAST investigation analyzes whether crews can develop plans in a reasonable period of time with appropriate input, whether proximity of planners to the planned operations increases efficiency, and if crew members are more satisfied when given a role in plan development.
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image NASA Image: ISS052E016179 - Astronaut Peggy Whitson is photographed sitting in front of the Cupola windows during the final Crew Autonomous Scheduling Test (CAST) session. The CAST investigation analyzes whether crews can develop plans in a reasonable period of time with appropriate input, whether proximity of planners to the planned operations increases efficiency, and if crew members are more satisfied when given a role in plan development.
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