NanoRacks-SMA Unggul Del-Micro aerobic Metabolism of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a Microgravity Environment (NanoRacks-SUD-Micro Aerobic Metabolism) - 11.22.16

Overview | Description | Applications | Operations | Results | Publications | Imagery

ISS Science for Everyone

Science Objectives for Everyone
A microorganism called brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) has been crucial for making bread, beer, and wine for millennia. This species of fungus grows with or without oxygen and is commonly grown under micro-aerobic conditions, in which small amounts of oxygen are present. NanoRacks-SMA Unggul Del-Micro-aerobic Metabolism of the Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae in a Microgravity Environment (NanoRacks-SUD-Micro-aerobic Metabolism) studies how microgravity affects yeast grown under micro-aerobic conditions, which are used in industrial applications to produce different flavors and alcohol content.
Science Results for Everyone
Information Pending

The following content was provided by Arini Desianti Parawi, S.Pd, and is maintained in a database by the ISS Program Science Office.
Experiment Details

OpNom:

Principal Investigator(s)
SMA Unggul Del , SMA Unggul Del, Indonesia

Co-Investigator(s)/Collaborator(s)
Arini Desianti Parawi, S.Pd, Del Superior High School, Indonesia

Developer(s)
SMA Unggul Del, Laguboti, Indonesia
Robotic Training Center, Serpong, Indonesia

Sponsoring Space Agency
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

Sponsoring Organization
National Laboratory Education (NLE)

Research Benefits
Earth Benefits, Scientific Discovery, Space Exploration

ISS Expedition Duration
March 2016 - September 2016

Expeditions Assigned
47/48

Previous Missions
Information Pending

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Experiment Description

Research Overview

  • NanoRacks-SMA Unggul Del-Micro-aerobic Metabolism of the Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae in a Microgravity Environment (NanoRacks-SUD-Micro-aerobic Metabolism) investigates the effect of gravity to the micro-aerobic metabolism of the yeast S. cerevisae.
  • This investigation determines the growth of the yeast S. cerevisae.
  • NanoRacks-SUD-Micro Aerobic Metabolism also examines the metabolites that are produced by the yeast. The investigation examines if the metabolism of yeast in space produces more alcohol and other products in space or not.
  • The benefit of the research may be to produce food, medical alcohol, and bioenergy in space using microorganism like yeast.
  • Another benefit is the discovery of the methods of growing yeast and the metabolism process.

Description

Fungi such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are facultative anaerobic microorganisms because they have the capability to grow with the presence of oxygen (aerobic) or without (anaerobic), in which the aerobic growth is more efficient and rapid. Different levels of cell metabolites are produced under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Yeast can also grow well under micro-aerobic condition where at first the cell undergoes aerobic growth followed by micro-aerobic growth when the oxygen becomes limited. This type of cultivation is commonly applied in industry because it allows cell formation at the start of fermentation, followed by production of certain metabolites (ethanol, flavors) under oxygen-limited conditions. NanoRacks-SMA Unggul Del-Micro-aerobic Metabolism of the Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae in a Microgravity Environment (NanoRacks-SUD-Micro-aerobic Metabolism) investigates the effect of gravity to the micro-aerobic metabolism of the yeast S. cerevisiae. The cell is cultivated using the juice from Yeast Peptone Dextrose (YPD). On earth, gravity causes affect the movement of atoms. The near weightless of space or microgravity causes constant movement and it is going to be in constant free fall. The difference of movement of the atomics may cause a different result of the fermentation process. Enzymes are the main factor to determine the metabolism. In space, microgravity may make the enzymes work faster because of the weightless condition, which makes the substrates distribute constantly. The faster the enzymes work the more the metabolites are produced in a short time. Constant movement of the substrates and enzymes make the metabolism run faster than in gravity. The benefit of the research may be to produce food, medical alcohol, and bioenergy in space using a microorganism like yeast.
 
A micropump (mp6 from Bartels Mikrotechnik GmbH) is used to deliver YPD liquid to an observation chamber. This mp6 pumps approximately 5 mL of liquid per minute. Another pump with the same specification is also used to pump formaldehyde to the same chamber in order to stop the yeast growing process. The observation chamber is a milled polycarbonate tube with diameter 4.14”; length 27.93”. Programming and electronic interface circuitry manages the pump timing duration, and photo frequency.
 
Temperature needs to be around 25oC with approximately 14.7 psi. Continuous power is needed for a minimum of 3 days after the first 28 hours of intermittent power. Thereafter power can be momentarily interrupted without significant disruption to the experiment. The experiment is designed function for the duration of the flight onboard the ISS but it can be shut down after 10 days if needed.

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Applications

Space Applications
Microgravity causes cellular changes in all forms of life, from single-celled bacteria and fungi to animals and people. This investigation studies how microgravity affects the metabolism of a yeast strain used in food and beverage production. Yeast strains cultivated in space are compared to strains grown on Earth to study differences in their consumption of sugar and production of alcohol. Understanding how brewer’s yeast responds to microgravity benefits efforts to use the yeast to make food, produce energy and create alcohol for use as a disinfectant on future space missions.

Earth Applications
Results provide new insight into yeast’s ability to grow in extreme environments. In addition, students in grades 11 and 12 devised the experiment as part of the school’s goal to promote science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) concepts.

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Operations

Operational Requirements and Protocols

NanoRacks Module-21 is completely autonomous and only requires installation and removal. During actual operation photographic data is sent to the investigators to track the progress of the experiment. The first three days have the most data transmitted (about 16 VGA quality photographs along with environmental data (humidity and temperature). Thereafter, transmission is limited to 1 VGA photo and environmental data per day for the duration of the flight. The payload chamber needs to be returned to the research so its contents can be examined under an atomic force microscope.
 
Crew interaction with Module-21 limited to transferring the NanoRacks locker insert from the launch vehicle to the ISS, Installation and activation of the NanoRacks Frames into the EXPRESS Rack Locker, cleaning of the air inlet fair (as necessary) and data retrieval (as needed) during the mission.

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Decadal Survey Recommendations

Information Pending

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Results/More Information

Information Pending

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Related Websites

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Imagery

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Unifinished microlab unit of NanoRacks-SMA Unggul Del-Micro-aerobic Metabolism of the Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae in a Microgravity Environment (NanoRacks-SUD-Micro-aerobic Metabolism) experiment. Image courtesy of Del Superior High School.

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Gomos and Gilbert are preparing an observation chamber used for NanoRacks-SMA Unggul Del-Micro-aerobic Metabolism of the Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae in a Microgravity Environment (NanoRacks-SUD-Micro-aerobic Metabolism). Image courtesy of Del Superior High School.

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Gomos is preparing a vinyl water bag, which is used for YPD storage in NanoRacks-SMA Unggul Del-Micro-aerobic Metabolism of the Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae in a Microgravity Environment (NanoRacks-SUD-Micro-aerobic Metabolism). Image courtesy of Del Superior High School.

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ISS Project Team of Del Superior High School for the NanoRacks-SMA Unggul Del-Micro-aerobic Metabolism of the Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae in a Microgravity Environment (NanoRacks-SUD-Micro-aerobic Metabolism) investigation. From left to right : Desi, Gomos, Anisa, Junita, Freddy, Elin, Gilbert, Joy, Rudini, Jonathan, Martin, Hagai. Image courtesy of Del Superior High School.

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