Influence of Factors of the Space Environment on the Condition of the System of Microorganisms-Hosts Relating to the Problem of Environmental Safety of Flight Techniques and Planetary Quarantine (Biorisk-KM-metally (metals) and Biorisk-KM-polimery (polimers)) - 03.07.18

Overview | Description | Applications | Operations | Results | Publications | Imagery

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Science Objectives for Everyone
The Influence of Factors of the Space Environment on the Condition of the System of Microorganisms-Hosts Relating to the Problem of Environmental Safety of Flight Techniques and Planetary Quarantine (Biorisk) investigation aims to obtain new data on physical and genetic changes in bacteria and fungi typically found on spacecraft equipment, and also in various biological test objects (higher plant seeds, dormant forms of lower crustaceans) under exposure in the interior ISS compartments and on the exterior ISS surfaces.
Science Results for Everyone
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The following content was provided by Natalia Novikova, Nataliya D. Novikova, Ph.D., and is maintained in a database by the ISS Program Science Office.
Experiment Details

OpNom:

Principal Investigator(s)
Natalia Novikova, Institute of Medical and Biological Problems of Russian Academy of Sciences (IMBP RAS), Russia
Nataliya D. Novikova, Ph.D., Institute of Medical and Biological Problems of Russian Academy of Sciences (IMBP RAS), Moscow, Russia

Co-Investigator(s)/Collaborator(s)
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Developer(s)
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Sponsoring Space Agency
Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos)

Sponsoring Organization
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Research Benefits
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ISS Expedition Duration
June 2002 - December 2002; November 2002 - May 2003; April 2003 - September 2015

Expeditions Assigned
5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19/20,21/22,23/24,25/26,27/28,29/30,31/32,33/34,35/36,37/38,39/40,41/42,43/44

Previous Missions
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Experiment Description

Research Overview
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Description
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Applications

Space Applications
The Biorisk experiment results are intended to be used in the development of advanced technologies to reduce the risk of biological damage to space equipment and hardware. The experiment’s value in terms of resolving problems of planetary quarantine is of a particular note, because its results have demonstrated the possibility of long-term (comparable to a round trip between Earth and Mars) viability of bacteria/microscopic fungi spore forms exposed to space environment, which consequently indicates the possibility of transferring Earth organisms on the exterior surfaces of interplanetary stations to other planets.

Earth Applications
The survivability limits determined for microorganisms causing biological destruction in extreme conditions and the sequence of their colonization of structural materials will facilitate the selection of the most environmentally safe materials that are resistant to bacterial contamination and can be used on the objects with artificial space habitat, as well as in gas/oil pipelines.

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Operations

Operational Requirements and Protocols
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Decadal Survey Recommendations

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Results/More Information

For outfitting the Biorisk-MSV/Biorisk-MSN containers, bacterial and fungal spores were used and applied to the materials used in space technologies. In particular, industrial aramid cloth and AМГ-6 aluminum alloy were used. The seeds of higher plants were placed in cotton bags. For the first time in the world, the possibility has been demonstrated of long-term (31-month) survival of various biological agents (spores of bacteria and microscopic fungi) when exposed to space, thus providing the basis for assuming that such agents may travel to other planets on spacecraft surfaces and for taking this capability into consideration when developing and validating planetary quarantine measures. It was also demonstrated that not only spores of bacteria or microscopic fungi are capable of long-term survival in space, but also biological objects at the highest levels of development in the evolutionary chain, i.e., higher plant seeds.

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Results Publications

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Ground Based Results Publications

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ISS Patents

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Related Publications

    Bartlett JD, Scicchitano DA, Robison SH.  Two expressed human genes sustain slightly more DNA damage after alkylating agent treatment than an inactive gene. Mutation Research - Reviews in Mutation Research. 1991 Nov; 255(3): 247-256. PMID: 1719396.

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Related Websites
Energia - Science Research on the ISS Russian Segment

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Imagery

image Biorisk KM kit.
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image Biorisk MCB container.
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image ISS028-E-018265 (21 July 2011) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Samokutyaev, Expedition 28 flight engineer, works with a Biorisk-MSN experiment container in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station
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