Mutational Spectra of Bacillus subtilis Spores and Plasmid DNA Exposed to High Vacuum and Solar UV Radiation in Space Environment (EXPOSE-R SUBTIL) - 11.22.16

Overview | Description | Applications | Operations | Results | Publications | Imagery

ISS Science for Everyone

Science Objectives for Everyone
The objective of the Mutational Spectra of Bacillus subtilis Spores and Plasmid DNA Exposed to High Vacuum and Solar UV Radiation in Space Environment (Expose-R SUBTIL) investigation is to expose spores of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis to the open space environment. The EXPOSE programme is part of the European Space Agency's (ESA) research in astrobiology, i.e. the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the Universe. EXPOSE offers one to two years of exposure with full access to all components of the harsh space environment:  cosmic radiation, vacuum, full-spectrum solar light including UV-C, freezing/thawing cycles, and microgravity.
Science Results for Everyone
Information Pending

The following content was provided by Hervé Cottin, and is maintained in a database by the ISS Program Science Office.
Information provided courtesy of the Erasmus Experiment Archive.
Experiment Details

OpNom:

Principal Investigator(s)
N. Munakata, Japan

Co-Investigator(s)/Collaborator(s)
K. Hieda, Japan
F. Kawamura, Japan

Developer(s)
European Space Agency (ESA), Noordwijk, Netherlands

Sponsoring Space Agency
European Space Agency (ESA)

Sponsoring Organization
Information Pending

Research Benefits
Information Pending

ISS Expedition Duration
October 2008 - March 2011

Expeditions Assigned
18,19/20,21/22,23/24,25/26

Previous Missions
Information Pending

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Experiment Description

Research Overview

Mutational Spectra of Bacillus subtilis Spores and Plasmid DNA Exposed to High Vacuum and Solar UV Radiation in Space Environment (Expose-R SUBTIL) determines the mutagenicity of the spores of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis induced by exposure to space vacuum and/or solar UV radiation. The experiment uses two different strains of the bacteria, one of which is deficient in repairing UV-induced photoproducts. The frequencies of rifampicin-resistant mutations and sequence changes in the induced mutants (“mutagenic spectra”) is determined, and compared with those obtained by the vacuum and solar-UV exposure on the ground.

Description
Information Pending

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Applications

Space Applications
Expose-R contains a variety of biological samples including plant seeds, bacteria, fungi and ferns, which are exposed to the harsh space environment for 22 months.

Earth Applications
New knowledge about the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the universe is expected to be the major benefit of this investigation.

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Operations

Operational Requirements and Protocols

At the end of the 22 months exposure period the Expose-R trays are retrieved from their location outside the station and returned to Earth and distributed to scientists for further analysis.

Nine experiments contained in three trays make up Expose-R, which is mounted on the outside of the Russian segment of the International Space Station.
 

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Decadal Survey Recommendations

Information Pending

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Results/More Information

Information Pending

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Results Publications

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Ground Based Results Publications

    Rabbow E, Horneck G, Rettberg P, Schott J, Panitz C, L'Afflitto A, von Heise-Rotenburg R, Willnecker R, Baglioni P, Hatton JP, Dettmann J, Demets R, Reitz G.  EXPOSE, an Astrobiological Exposure Facility on the International Space Station - from Proposal to Flight. Origins of life and evolution of the biosphere: The Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life. 2009; 39(6): 581-598. DOI: 10.1007/s11084-009-9173-6.

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ISS Patents

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Related Publications

    Moeller R, Schuerger AC, Reitz G, Nicholson WL.  Protective role of spore structural components in determining bacillus subtilis spore resistance to simulated Mars surface conditions. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2012 December 15; 78(24): 8849-8853. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.02527-12.

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Related Websites
Expose-R SUBTIL Investigation from ESA's Erasmus Experiment Archive

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Imagery

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NASA Image: ISS018E013542 - Russian Cosmonaut Yury Lonchakov in the Pirs Docking Compartment (DC1), as he works with an EXPOSE-R sample tray.

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NASA Image: ISS018E039227 - One of two Expedition 18 spacewalkers on March 10 provided this close-up image of the Expose-R experiment, reinstalled a short while earlier on the outside of the Russian segment of the International Space Station. The European experiment is equipped with three trays which contain a variety of biological samples.

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NASA Image: ISS021E027095 - The Expose-R experiment located on the exterior of the Service Module (SM)/Zvezda.

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NASA Image: ISS025E015290 - Russian Cosmonaut Oleg Skripochka, Expedition 25 flight engineer, wearing a Russian Orlan spacesuit, is photographed working near the ESA experiment EXPOSE-R instrument installed on Zvezda Service module. Photo taken during the Russian EVA 26.

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NASA Image: ISS026E021253 - The EXPOSE R - Russian Experiment, in the Service Module (SM). Photo was taken during Expedition 26.

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