Plasma Kristall-4 (PK-4) - 08.29.18

Overview | Description | Applications | Operations | Results | Publications | Imagery

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Science Objectives for Everyone
Plasma Krystall-4 (PK-4) is a scientific collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos), performing research in the field of "Complex Plasmas": low temperature gaseous mixtures composed of ionized gas, neutral gas, and micron-sized particles. The micro-particles become highly charged in the plasma and interact strongly with each other, which can lead to a self-organized structure of the micro-particles: so-called plasma crystals. Experiments in the facility aim to study Transport Properties, Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Statistical Physics, and Non-linear waves and Instabilities in the plasmas.
Science Results for Everyone
Information Pending

The following content was provided by Ove Havnes, Ph.D., John A. Goree, Ph.D., and is maintained in a database by the ISS Program Science Office.
Information provided courtesy of the Erasmus Experiment Archive.
Experiment Details

OpNom: Plasma Kristall-4

Principal Investigator(s)
Ove Havnes, Ph.D., University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway
John A. Goree, Ph.D., University of Iowa, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa City, IA, United States

Gregor E. Morfill, Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, Germany
Markus H. Thoma, Ph.D., University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany
Vladimir I. Molotkov, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Alexander Usachev, Ph.D., Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Moscow, Russia
Svetlana Ratynskaia, School of Electrical Engineering, Space & Plasma Physics, Stockholm, Sweden
Laifa Boufendi, Universite d'Orleans, Orleans, France
Umberto de Angelis, University of Napoli - Federico II, Naples, Italy
Ciro Marmolino, Ph.D., University of Sannio - Department of Engineering, Benevento, Italy
Dmitry Samsonov, Ph.D., University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
Gerrit M. W. Kroesen, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands
Edward Thomas, Ph.D., Auburn University, Auburn, AL, United States
Hubertus M. Thomas, Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, Germany
Andrey M. Lipaev, Institute for High Energy Densities, Moscow, Russia

Information Pending

Sponsoring Space Agency
European Space Agency (ESA) and Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos)

Sponsoring Organization
European Space Agency

Research Benefits
Scientific Discovery

ISS Expedition Duration
March 2015 - March 2016; March 2016 - April 2019; -

Expeditions Assigned

Previous Missions
Information Pending

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Experiment Description

Research Overview
Plasma Krystall-4 (PK-4) is not an apparatus dedicated for specific experiments, but rather a laboratory which shall offer the possibility to perform a large variety of experiments with complex plasmas and to react to new developments in this field in a manner as flexible as possible.

The main interest lies in the investigation of the liquid phase and flow phenomena of complex plasmas. The experiments can be divided into three classes of fundamental questions:
1. Microscopic properties of complex plasmas: charging of particles, external forces (e.g. ion drag), fundamental interactions, agglomeration, particle growth;
2. Macroscopic properties of complex plasmas: hydrodynamics (e.g. viscosity), thermodynamics, non-equilibriums aspects of complex plasmas;
3. Generic properties of classical many-body systems: Dynamic processes can be investigated on the level of single particles, which is not possible in most systems. Typical examples are crystallization and melting, photons in plasma crystals, dust waves, Mach cones, nozzles, turbulence, and nano-fluidics.

Plasma Krystall (PK-4) is an experiment for investigating complex plasmas. Plasmas are ionized gases produced by high temperatures, like in the sun, or by electric fields, i.e., low temperature discharge plasmas like in neon tubes. In the latter case the degree of ionization is small and a large amount of neutral gas is present. Complex or dusty plasmas are plasmas which contain beside electrons, ions, and neutral gas in addition micro-particles, e.g., dust grains. Due to the strong influence of gravity on the micro-particles, most experiments on complex plasmas are strongly distorted or even impossible on earth, and therefore, require microgravity conditions. The main interest lies in the investigation of the liquid phase and flow phenomena of complex plasmas for which PK-4 is especially suited thanks to a DC-discharge and its geometry (elongated glass tube with a large observational access).

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Space Applications
Plasmas are found throughout the universe, from the interstellar medium to the heat shields of spacecraft re-entering Earth's atmosphere. Understanding how plasma crystals form in microgravity could shed light on plasma phenomena in space, which could lead to new research methods or improved spacecraft designs.

Earth Applications
PK-4 enables fundamental investigation of flows and related instabilities, by mimicking molecular mechanisms at a scale which allows for real time in-situ optical observations. This requires on-orbit experiments to be undertaken in order to observe the processes at work, which are obviously disturbed by the influence of gravity on Earth. Even though PK-4 is principally a fundamental experiment, understanding the processes at work and understanding how complex plasmas can be influenced by varying research parameters gives a better understanding of how improvements can be made in areas and industries where plasmas are used.

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Operational Requirements and Protocols
• Upload of the PK4 hardware on 57P (under RSOS agreement).
• PK4 Installation and Checkout. Ventline Commissioning. PK4 Experiment Commissioning.
• First science operations.

The life-time of PK-4 on the International Space Station (ISS) is projected for four years. The number of campaigns could be between 15 and 20. A campaign consists of a series of experiments over a few days. For example, up to 200 minutes experiment time per day, 3 days per campaign, 4 campaigns per year, 4 years of operations. A pool of experiment proposals exists from which experiments for the ISS are selected. However, it is clear that not all experiments from the pool will be realized, and that new experiment proposals are added according to the scientific progress in the field of complex plasmas. Experiments are to be proposed according to the outcome of former experiments with PK-4 on the ISS. This approach requires planning of the experiment scripts in a manner as flexible as possible.

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Decadal Survey Recommendations

Information Pending

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Results/More Information

Information Pending

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Results Publications

    Usachev AD, Zobnin AV, Shonenkov AV, Lipaev AM, Molotkov VI, Petrov OF, Fortov VE, Pustylnik MY, Fink MA, Thoma MH, Thomas HM, Padalka GI.  Influence of dust particles on the neon spectral line intensities at the uniform positive column of dc discharge at the space apparatus “Plasma Kristall-4”. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2018 January; 946: 012143. DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/946/1/012143.

    Zobnin AV, Usachev AD, Lipaev AM, Petrov OF, Fortov VE, Pustylnik MY, Thomas HM, Fink MA, Thoma MH, Padalka GI.  Transverse ionization instability of the elongated dust cloud in the gas discharge uniform positive column under microgravity conditions. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2016; 774(1): 012174. DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/774/1/012174.

    Liu B, Goree JA, Pustylnik MY, Thomas HM, Fortov VE, Lipaev AM, Usachev AD, Molotkov VI, Petrov OF, Thoma MH.  Particle velocity distribution in a three-dimensional dusty plasma under microgravity conditions. American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings. 2018; 1925: 020005. DOI: 10.1063/1.5020393.

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Ground Based Results Publications

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ISS Patents

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Related Publications

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Related Websites

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NASA Image: ISS056E098197 - Cosmonaut Sergei Prokopev, Expedition 56 Flight Engineer (FE), during Plasma Kristall-4 (PK-4) investigation interface installation. Photo taken by Expedition 56 crew.

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