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Hurricane Season 2008: Marco (Atlantic Ocean)
Oct. 09, 2008

Marco Made Landfall in Mexico and Dissipated in Twelve Hours

AIRS image of Marco on Oct. 9, 2008
> Larger image Credit: Credit: Hal Pierce, SSAI/NASA
Marco made landfall on the east central Mexican coast at 11 a.m. EDT on Oct. 7, and twelve hours later, he had dissipated.

By 1 p.m. EDT, just two hours after landfall Marco's sustained winds weakened to 40 mph. Six hours later, at 5 p.m. EDT, Marco had weakened further to a tropical depression with sustained winds near 35 mph. By 11 p.m. EDT, Marco had already dissipated over Mexico, and the National Hurricane Center issued its final advisory.

The final official position of Marco's remnants was 20.0 north latitude and 97.5 west longitude at 11 p.m. EDT on Oct. 7. That's about 70 miles south of Tuxpan, Mexico and 100 miles west-northwest of Veracruz, Mexico. At that time, Marco's sustained winds dropped to near 20 knots.

The National Hurricane Center noted "The only remaining threat with this system is locally heavy rains and the potential for flash flooding over eastern portions of central Mexico during the next day or so."

NASA's TRMM Satellite Analyzes Rainfall from Space

The image above was made from data captured by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite on Oct. 7 at 5:20 UTC (1:20 a.m. EDT). This TRMM image shows the horizontal pattern of rain intensity within Marco. The center is located near the yellow, green and red areas, which indicate rainfall between 20 and 40 millimeters (.78 to 1.57 inches) per hour. The very tiny red areas are considered moderate rainfall.

For more information about how TRMM looks at rainfall, visit NASA's TRMM website at: http://trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov/. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA.

NASA's AIRS Instrument Shows Very Little Left of Marco

This infrared image of the tiny remnants of Marco was created by data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), an instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. The image was created on Wednesday, Oct. 8 at 8:17 UTC (4:17 a.m. EDT). In the image, the little spot on the Gulf Coast of Mexico are the clouds that remain from Marco.

The AIRS image shows the temperature of the cloud tops or the surface of the Earth in cloud-free regions. The coldest cloud temperatures are normally in purple, however there isn't any purple. Therefore the clouds are not as high as they are in stronger storms. The second coolest cloud temperatures are in blue. The AIRS data creates an accurate 3-D map of atmospheric temperature, water vapor and clouds, all of which are helpful to forecasters.

The infrared signal of the AIRS instrument does not penetrate through clouds. Where there are no clouds the AIRS instrument reads the infrared signal from the surface of the ocean waters, revealing warmer temperatures in orange and red. Text credit: Rob Gutro/Goddard Space Flight Center

Oct. 07, 2008

Tropical Storm Marco is Born, Landfall Expected in Mexico Today

MODIS image of Tropical Storm Marco on Oct. 7, 2008
> Larger image
Credit: NASA/Jesse Allen/MODIS Rapid Response Team
The thirteenth tropical depression in the Atlantic Ocean basin this season strengthened into Tropical Storm Marco around 5 p.m. EDT on October 6. Marco is very close to the southeastern Mexican coast in the Bay of Campeche, and is expected to make landfall in that region later today, Oct. 7.

At 8:00 a.m. EDT on October 7, Marco's maximum sustained winds were near 65 mph and some strengthening is possible so, Marco could be near hurricane strength when it reaches the coast. Marco's center was about 80 miles southeast of Tuxpan, Mexico at 8 a.m. That's near 20.2 degrees north latitude and 96.5 degrees west longitude. Marco continues to move west-northwest near 8 mph. The estimated minimum central pressure is 998 millibars.

This image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite on October 6 shows Marco poised for landfall on the Mexican coast. Note that at the time of this image, there was no visible eye. Marco is an extremely small tropical cyclone. Tropical storm force winds only extend outward up to 10 miles from the center.

Warnings and Watches are already posted for the area where Marco is now and is heading. A tropical storm warning and a hurricane watch remain in effect from Cabo Rojo, Mexico southward to Veracruz. The National Hurricane Center says that "Tropical storm conditions are expected and hurricane conditions are possible within the warning area later today [Oct. 7]."

The southern and central Mexican states of northern Veracruz, northern Puebla, Hildalgo and San Luis Potosi can expect a soaking from Marco. Marco is expected to produce total rainfall amounts of 2 to 4 inches with as much as 6 inches possible.

Text credit: Rob Gutro/Goddard Space Flight Center

Oct. 6, 2008

Thirteenth Atlantic Season Tropical Depression Forms in Gulf of Mexico

Satellite image of TD13 Credit: NOAA/NASA GOES Project
> Larger image
It was only a matter of time, as we've just passed the official peak of the Atlantic hurricane season (mid-September), and the thirteenth tropical depression has now officially formed.

Tropical Depression 13 (TD13) formed in the Bay of Campeche, Gulf of Mexico around 11 a.m. EDT on October 6. Specifically, it's located about 140 miles east of Veracruz, Mexico, near latitude 19.0 north and 94.1 west.

Southeastern Mexico Under Threat

TD13 doesn't pose a threat to the U.S., but it certainly does pose a threat to southeastern Mexico. As such, the Mexican government has issued a tropical storm warning for the Gulf Coast of Mexico from Tuxpan south to Punta El Lagarto. That means tropical storm conditions are expected in 24 hours.

TD13 is moving west-northwest near 10 mph and will continue in that direction for the next day. Its maximum sustained winds were near 35 mph, and some strengthening is forecast in the next 24 hours meaning it should become a tropical storm before making landfall. The minimum central pressure was 1007 millibars.

Rainfall will be the big threat to the southern Mexican states of Veracruz, Northern Oaxaca and Tabasco. Those areas can expect between 2 and 4 inches with isolated amounts to 6 inches of rain.

This satellite image was captured on October 6 at 14:31 UTC (10:31 a.m. EDT) from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-12). TD13 is the circular area of clouds in the lower left part of the image. It is also left of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula which is at the bottom center of the image jutting into the Gulf of Mexico.

GOES is operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It was created by NASA's GOES Project, located at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.

Text credit: Rob Gutro, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center