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Meet the Desert RATS Crew

Astronaut Crew

Bob Behnken

Robert L. Behnken (Lietenant Colonel, USAF, PH.D.), NASA Astronaut

Personal Data: Hometown: St. Ann, Missouri. Married. Recreational interests include mountain biking, skiing, and backpacking. He has a younger sister and two nephews. His father resides in St. Ann, Missouri.

Education: Pattonville High School, Maryland Heights, Missouri, 1988

B.S. Physics and B.S. Mechanical Engineering, Washington University, 1992 M.S. Mechanical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, 1993 Ph.D. Mechanical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, 1997.

Special Honors: Outstanding Mechanical Engineering Senior, Washington University (1992); National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellow (1993-1996). USAF Medals: Achievement (1997), Commendation (1998, 2000), Meritorious Service (2004), Defense Meritorious Service (2008). NASA Medals: Space Flight (2008, 2010).

Experience: Graduate Research in Nonlinear control.; Dr. Behnken's thesis research was in the area of nonlinear control applied to stabilizing rotating stall and surge in axial flow compressors.; The research included nonlinear analysis, real-time software implementation development, and extensive hardware construction.; During his first two years of graduate study, Dr. Behnken developed control algorithms and hardware for flexible robotic manipulators.

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Prior to entering graduate school, Behnken was an Air Force ROTC student at Washington University in St. Louis, and after graduate school was assigned to Eglin AFB, Florida. While at Eglin, he worked as a technical manager and developmental engineer for munitions systems. Behnken was next assigned to attend the Air Force Test Pilot School at Edwards AFB, California. After graduating, he was assigned to the F-22 Combined Test Force (CTF) at Edwards. In the F-22 test program where he served as the lead flight test engineer for the 4th F-22. Lieutenant Colonel Behnken has over 1000 flight hours in more than 25 different aircraft types.

NASA Experience: Selected as a mission specialist by NASA in July 2000, Behnken reported for training in August 2000.; Following the completion of 18 months of training and evaluation, he was assigned technical duties in the Astronaut Office Shuttle Branch supporting launch and landing activities at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Behnken flew STS-123 in March 2008 and STS-130 in February 2010, logging over 708 hours in space, including over 37 EVA hours during six space walks. During the fall of 2008, he trained as a mission specialist for STS-400, the rescue flight for the last Hubble Servicing Mission.

Space Flight Experience: STS-123 Endeavour (March 11-26, 2008) was a night launch/landing, and the twenty-fifth Space Station assembly mission. Endeavour's crew delivered the first component of JAXA's Kibo Laboratory, and the final element of the station's Mobile Servicing System, the Canadian-built Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator known as Dextre. Behnken served as Mission Specialist 1 for ascent and entry, performed three spacewalks, served as the IV (internal spacewalk coordinator), and operated both the space station robotic arm and the Dextre robot. The mission was accomplished in 250 orbits of the Earth, traveling 6,577,857 statute miles in 15 days, 18 hours, 10 minutes and 54 seconds.

STS-130 Endeavour (February 8-21, 2010) was a night launch/landing and the thirty-second Space Station assembly mission. Endeavour's crew delivered and outfitted Node 3, also known as Tranquility, and the Cupola, a seven windowed portal on the Earth. Behnken served as Mission Specialist 4, operated the space station robotic arm, served as the spacewalking lead and performed three spacewalks. The mission was accomplished in 217 orbits of the Earth, traveling 5,738,991 statute miles in 13 days, 18 hours, 6 minutes and 24 seconds.

Kjell Lindgren

Kjell N. Lindgren (M.D.), NASA Astronaut

Personal Data: Born in Taipei, Taiwan. Lived in the midwestern U.S., but spent most of his childhood overseas living in England. Married to the former Kristiana Jones. They have three children. His parents, Randahl and Anita Lindgren, reside in Burke, Virginia. His sister, Niki Lindgren, lives in Los Angeles, California. Interests include spending time with his family, running, reading, movies, photography, amateur astronomy and church activities.

Education: Completed his freshman year at Lakenheath High School in the U.K. Participated in Virginia's Governor's School at William and Mary College during the summer of 1990. Graduated from James W. Robinson Secondary School Fairfax, Virginia in 1991. Received a bachelor of science degree in biology (minor in Mandarin Chinese) from the U.S. Air Force Academy in 1995; a master of science degree in cardiovascular physiology from Colorado State University (CSU) in 1996; and a doctorate of medicine from the University of Colorado in 2002. Completed a 3-year residency in emergency medicine, including a chief resident year at Hennepin County Medical Center in Minneapolis, Minnesota in 2005. Completed a National Library of Medicine post-doctoral fellowship and master of health informatics at the University of Minnesota in 2006. Completed a 2-year residency in aerospace medicine (2008) and a master of public health (2007) at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) in Galveston, Texas. Dr. Lindgren is board certified in emergency medicine and aerospace medicine.

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Organizations: Associate fellow of the Aerospace Medical Association; fellow of the American Academy of Emergency Medicine; American Medical Informatics Association; Alpha Omega Alpha Medical Honor Society; Space Medicine Association; Christian Medical and Dental Associations and National Eagle Scout Association.

Special Honors: UTMB Outstanding Resident Award (2008); Distinguished Graduate, U.S. Air Force Primary Flight Surgeon Course (2007); William K. Douglas Aerospace Medicine Scholarship (2007); Hippocrates Award, University of Colorado School of Medicine (2002); Richard C. Hardin Award, University of Colorado School of Medicine (2001); Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society (2001); Edgar and Marion Adler Scholar, University of Colorado School of Medicine (2001, 2002); U.S. Air Force Achievement Medal (1998).

Experience: At the U.S. Air Force Academy, Dr. Lindgren was a member of the "Wings of Blue" parachute team, where he served as an instructor, a jumpmaster and a member of the academy's intercollegiate national championship team. As a part of his masters studies at CSU, Dr. Lindgren conducted cardiovascular countermeasure research in the Space Physiology Lab at NASA Ames Research Center in Sunnyvale, California. He conducted high-altitude physiology research during medical school. Dr. Lindgren began working at Johnson Space Center in 2007. As a Wyle-University of Texas Medical Branch flight surgeon, he supported International Space Station (ISS) training and operations in Star City, Russia and water survival training in the Ukraine. At the time of his selection to the astronaut corps, he was serving as the deputy crew surgeon for STS-130 and Expedition 24.

NASA Experience: Dr. Lindgren was selected in June 2009 as one of 14 members of the 20th NASA astronaut class. He recently graduated from Astronaut Candidate Training that included scientific and technical briefings, intensive instruction in ISS systems, Extravehicular Activity (EVA), robotics, physiological training, T-38 flight training and water and wilderness survival training.

Megan McArthur

K. Megan McArthur (Ph.D.), NASA Astronaut

Personal Data: Born in 1971 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Considers California to be her home state. Married. Her parents, Don & Kit McArthur, reside in San Jose, California. Megan enjoys SCUBA diving, backpacking, and cooking.

Education: Graduated from St. Francis High School, Mountain View, CA, 1989. B. S. Aerospace Engineering, University of California-Los Angeles, 1993. Ph.D., Oceanography, University of California-San Diego, 2002.

Experience: At the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Megan conducted graduate research in nearshore underwater acoustic propagation and digital signal processing. Her research focused on determining geoacoustic models to describe very shallow water waveguides using measured transmission loss data in a genetic algorithm inversion technique. She served as Chief Scientist during at-sea data collection operations, and has planned and led diving operations during sea-floor instrument deployments and sediment-sample collections. While at Scripps, she participated in a range of in-water instrument testing, deployment, maintenance, and recovery, and collection of marine plants, animals, and sediment. During this time, Megan also volunteered at the Birch Aquarium at Scripps, conducting educational demonstrations for the public from inside a 70,000 gallon exhibit tank of the California Kelp Forest.

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NASA Experience: Selected as a mission specialist by NASA in July 2000, Megan McArthur reported for training in August 2000. Following the completion of two years of training and evaluation, she was assigned to the Astronaut Office Shuttle Operations Branch working technical issues on shuttle systems in the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory (SAIL). Dr. McArthur then served as the Crew Support Astronaut for the Expedition 9 Crew during their six-month mission aboard the International Space Station. She also worked in the Space Station and Space Shuttle Mission Control Centers as a Capsule Communicator (CAPCOM). Dr. McArthur served aboard STS-125, the final Space Shuttle mission to the Hubble Space Telescope. The mission successfully extended and improved the observatorys capabilities through 2014. In completing her first space mission, Dr. McArthur has logged almost 13 days in space.

Space Flight Experience: STS-125 Atlantis (May 11-24, 2009) was the fifth and final Hubble servicing mission. The 19 year old telescope spent six days in the Shuttles cargo bay undergoing an overhaul conducted by four spacewalkers over five daily spacewalks, with the assistance of crewmates inside the Atlantis. The space walkers overcame frozen bolts, stripped screws, and stuck handrails. The refurbished Hubble Telescope now has four new or rejuvenated scientific instruments, new batteries, new gyroscopes, and a new computer. The STS-125 mission was accomplished in 12 days, 21 hours, 37 minutes and 09 seconds, traveling 5,276,000 miles in 197 Earth orbits.

Scott Tingle

Scott D. Tingle (Commander, USN), NASA Astronaut

Personal Data: Born in Attleboro, Massachusetts, but considers his hometown to be Randolph, Massachusetts. Married to the former Raynette Mahelona of Kailua, Hawaii. They have three children.

Education: Graduated from Blue Hills Regional Vocational Technical High School, Canton, Massachusetts, in 1983. Earned a bachelor of science in mechanical engineering from Southeastern Massachusetts University in 1987. Earned a master of science in mechanical engineering with a specialty in fluid mechanics and propulsion from Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, in 1988.

Organizations: Society of Experimental Test Pilots, Experimental Aircraft Association, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Tailhook Association, U.S. Navy Test Pilot School Alumni Association, Purdue University Alumni Association, University of Massachusetts Alumni Association, Save the Children.

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Special Honors: Awarded a Meritorious Service Medal, three Air Medals, six Navy Commendation Medals, including a Combat V, four Navy and Marine Corps Achievement Medals and various unit commendations. Graduated magna cum laude from Southeastern Massachusetts University. Outstanding Graduate of U.S. Navy Test Pilot School Class 113.

Experience: Following graduate school, Tingle spent 3 years with the Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, California, as a member of technical staff in their Propulsion Department. He was commissioned as a naval officer in 1991 and earned his wings of gold as a naval aviator in 1993. He began his operational flying career in 1994 with the Blue Diamonds of VFA-146 based from Lemoore, California. He deployed to the Western Pacific and North Arabian Gulf with Carrier Air Wing Nine aboard USS Nimitz. Following graduation from Navy Test Pilot School in 1998, he performed as an operational test pilot for the FA-18E/F Super Hornet program with the Vampires of VX-9, located at China Lake, California. Tingle then completed a CAG Paddles tour flying FA-18A/C Hornets with Carrier Air Wing Eleven (CVW-11) aboard USS Carl Vinson. CVW-11 and USS Carl Vinson were among the first responders following the attacks of September 11, 2001.

After a tour as assistant operations officer with the Strike Fighter Wing Pacific and instructor pilot with VFA-122, he completed a department head tour as safety officer, maintenance officer and operations officer while flying the FA-18A Hornet with the Warhawks of VFA-97 (Lemoore, California). Tingle completed a deployment with CVW-11 to the Western Pacific/North Arabian Gulf and also deployed with Marine Air Group Twelve (MAG-12) to Iwakuni, Japan. In 2005, Tingle returned to Patuxent River, Maryland, as the ship suitability department head and test pilot with the Salty Dogs of VX-23. Here he tested FA-18C Hornet, FA-18E/F Super Hornet and EA-18G Growler aircraft and certified aircraft carrier precision landing systems. Tingle was attached to PMA-201 as the lead systems engineer for the Standoff Land Attack Missile (SLAM) and Harpoon weapon systems when selected as an astronaut candidate. He has accumulated more than 3,500 flight hours in 48 types of aircraft, 700 carrier arrestments and 54 combat missions in Iraq and Afghanistan.

NASA Experience: Tingle was selected in July 2009 as one of 14 members of the 20th NASA astronaut class. He recently graduated from Astronaut Candidate Training that included scientific and technical briefings, intensive instruction in International Space Station systems, Extravehicular Activity (EVA), robotics, physiological training, T-38 flight training and water and wilderness survival training.

Geologist Crew

Jake Bleacher

Dr. Jacob Bleacher

Dr. Jacob Bleacher grew up in Lancaster PA where he graduated from Penn Manor High School in 1996. Jake earned a BA in Geosciences from Franklin and Marshall College in 2000 and a PhD in Geological Sciences from the Arizona State University in 2006. Following a 2 year postdoctoral fellowship Jake was hired as a planetary geologist in the Planetary Geodynamics Laboratory at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in 2008.

Jake's research interest is the characterization of planetary volcanic provinces through a combination of terrestrial field studies and spacecraft data analysis. He is currently studying the emplacement style of inflated basaltic lava flows in New Mexico and Hawai'i for comparison with similar lava flows that he is mapping in the Tharsis province of Mars. Due to his geology expertise outside of the office he has also begun testing new NASA instrument and science enabling technologies at his field sites.

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Jake has also been working in support of NASA Headquarters tasks to ensure the preservation of the role of field geology (and science in general) within the developing exploration architecture, which will send rovers and hopefully humans to other planetary surfaces in the future. These efforts, in collaboration with several NASA centers, have led to his participation with the Desert RATS where this is his second year serving as a scientist crew member to carry out the traverses and EVAs designed by the science team. Jake's home town is Annapolis, MD, where he, his wife and daughter serve as a sponsor family for United States Naval Academy Midshipmen. In his free time Jake enjoys the outdoors including working in his garden, landscaping, and hunting and fishing with his family, and ice hockey, his sport of choice.

Jose Hurtado

Dr. José M. Hurtado, Jr.

Dr. Hurtado earned a B.S./M.S. in geology from Caltech in 1996 and a Ph.D. in geology from MIT in 2002. He joined the faculty at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) in 2002 where he teaches physical geology, field geology, remote sensing, tectonic geomorphology, and planetary science. His terrestrial research interests include the tectonic evolution of the Bhutan Himalayas. José is also engaged in a variety of NASA planetary exploration science activities, including work on lunar geomorphology and in-situ resource discovery and utilization through the UTEP Center for Space Exploration Technology Research.

He has served as an instructor for NASA field geologic training courses, including training of the 2009 Astronaut Candidate class. He was a member of the science teams for the 2009 and 2010 K10 robotic recon/follow-up projects at NASA Ames Research Center and for Desert RATS 2009, 2010. During Desert RATS 2011, José will again join the science team.

Jonathan Meyer

Jonathan Meyer

Jonathan Meyer was born and raised in Nampa, Idaho where he graduated from Vallivue High School in 2005. Jonathan earned a B.S. in Geological Sciences from the University of Idaho in 2009, where he researched magmatic dike induced mega floods in the Elysium volcanic province, Mars. Jonathan is currently a graduate student at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) where he is pursuing a M.S. in Geological Sciences.

Jonathan's research focuses on lunar in situ resource discovery and utilization through the UTEP Center for Space Exploration Technology Research. Jonathan is currently developing new methods for lunar lava tube discovery and characterization using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) data. Jonathan served on the strategic science team for Desert RATS 2010, and has been given the opportunity to serve as a geologist crew member for Desert RATS 2011. Field analog studies like Desert RATS aid Jonathan's research tremendously by providing a unique insight into the scientific planning and execution of manned exploration missions. Understanding the logistics of extraterrestrial exploration, and how to best conduct scientific operations will help Jonathan determine the utility of newly discovered lunar lava tube candidates.

Carolyn Christle

Captain Carolyn Tewksbury-Christle

Capt Carolyn Tewksbury-Christle is the daughter of two geologists who immersed her in geology at a very young age by taking her on field excursions to places such as Hawaii, Iceland, East Africa, and Antarctica.

She has significant research experience in geology, including conducting research on Venusian geology throughout high school and, as an undergraduate, studying microfossils in Croatian carbonates, carrying out field geophysical surveys and modeling at Ship Rock, NM and doing research for MER and MSL as an intern at JPL and JSC, respectively. She earned her BA with a double major in Geology and Physics from Smith College in 2007 and commissioned into the Air Force as a research physicist. She was stationed for four years with the Air Force Research Labs at Starfire Optical Range, Kirtland Air Force Base, NM where she conducted research into advanced adaptive optics techniques and led a four-member team to design, build and fly an unmanned aerial vehicle.

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Since commissioning in the Air Force, she has fed her love for geology by mapping structural features in the Western Desert of Egypt using satellite imagery as part of a larger research project led by Dr. Barbara Tewksbury and by working as a field assistant for her husband Ken Christle's MS research on hydrovolcanic features in Iceland. She was also part of the science back room team for D-RATS 2010.

She is currently pursuing an Air Force-sponsored MS in Geophysics at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville with Dr. Greg Baker and will have a follow-on assignment teaching at the U.S. Air Force Academy in the Physics Department.

Backup Crew

Mary Sue Bell

Mary Sue Bell

Dr. Mary Sue Bell is a member of the DRATS Science Team and a back-up crew member for DRATS 2011. She is a geologist working in the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Office (ARES) at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas -- where all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples (rocks from the moon, meteorites, particles from the sun and comets) are curated. Dr. Bell also supports the Geolab test-bed in the Habitat Demonstration Unit at DRATS where sample handling protocols for curation of materials returned from future NASA missions are tested.

Mary Sue earned her Ph.D. from The University of Houston studying Martian meteorites and terrestrial meteorite impacts including the impact on the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico that is believed to have caused the great dinosaur extinction. Dr. Bell has supported and managed several projects associated with NASA's sample return missions including Mars Returned Sample Handling, Genesis Solar Wind particles, and Stardust Cometary samples. She supports NASA's analog programs in the Norwegian Arctic, the Antarctic, undersea at NOAA's Aquarius habitat, and the Arizona Black Point Lava Flow for DRATS by testing scenarios that simulate the kinds of geologic activities astronauts would conduct on other planetary surfaces. These activities support NASA's plans for human exploration beyond low Earth orbit.

Trevor Graff

Trevor Graff

Trevor G. Graff was born in Pennsylvania and grew up in Cortland, Ohio where he graduated from Lakeview High School in 1995. Trevor earned a BS in Geology and BA in Earth Sciences from Youngstown State University (YSU) in 1999, and a MS in Geological Sciences from Arizona State University (ASU) in 2003. Following graduation Trevor was a Research Specialist at the ASU Mars Space Flight Facility where he was the Payload Uplink Lead of the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer aboard NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions.

Trevor is currently a Planetary Geologist with Jacobs Technology in the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate at NASA's Johnson Space Center. In his current position he manages the Spectroscopy and Magnetics Laboratory conducting detailed spectroscopic analysis on a wide range of astromaterials and planetary analogue materials.

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This research provides physical, chemical, and mineralogical information used to interpret data from various planetary landers, rovers, and orbiting spacecraft. Trevor is also involved in numerous analog field studies to include the International Hawaii Analog Field Test and Desert RATS.

Captain Graff has over fifteen years of service in the United States Army Reserves, currently serving as Military Intelligence Officer. He has been deployed twice as part of Operation Enduring Freedom - Joint Task Force Guantanamo and Operation Iraqi Freedom - Corp Headquarters, Iraq.

Trevor and his wife currently reside in Friendswood, Texas where he enjoys outdoor activities including SCUBA diving, kayaking, hiking and windsurfing.

Dr. Stanley G. Love

Dr. Stanley G. Love, NASA Astronaut

Personal Data: Born June 8, 1965 in San Diego, California, but considers Eugene, Oregon to be his hometown. He is married, with two children. His recreational interests include martial arts, bicycling, alpine hiking, reading and writing science fiction, and appreciation of new music, cult films, and anime. His parents, Glen A. and Rhoda M. Love, reside in Oregon.

Education: Graduated from Winston Churchill High School, Eugene, Oregon, in 1983. Earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Physics from Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, California, in 1987. Attended graduate school in Astronomy at the University of Washington in Seattle, receiving a Master of Science degree in 1989 and a Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1993.

Organizations: American Astronomical Society; Division for Planetary Science; American Geophysical Union; American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (Associate Fellow); Meteoritical Society; Harvey Mudd College Alumni Association.

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Special Honors:

Awards: NASA Group Achievement Award (Orion Phase 2 Source Evaluation Team, 2007). Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Individual Performance Award (2003, 2004, 2006). NASA Space Flight Awareness Team Award (Orbital Space Plane Team, 2004). Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Group Achievement Award (Expedition 6 EVA Team, 2003). NOVA Award, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (1998). O.K. Earl Prize Postdoctoral Fellowship, California Institute of Technology, (1995). Dean's List Distinction, Harvey Mudd College (1985, 1986, 1987). National Merit and Oregon State (Sigma Chi) Scholar (1983-1984).

Experience: Worked summers at the University of Oregon in Eugene as a computer programming instructor (1984) and an assistant in physics and chemistry laboratories (1985-1987). As a graduate teaching assistant at the University of Washington in Seattle beginning in 1987, he taught undergraduate courses in general and planetary astronomy. He worked as a graduate research assistant at the University of Washington from 1989 to 1993 on a variety of projects including space propulsion and energy storage, stellar photometry and spectroscopy, analysis of space-exposed surfaces, hypervelocity impact and particle capture, atmospheric entry heating of micrometeoroids, infrared imaging of the zodiacal light, and electron microscopy of interplanetary dust particles. Moved to the University of Hawaii in Honolulu in 1994 for postdoctoral research on the formation of meteoritic chondrules, the collisional evolution of asteroids, and the possibility of meteorites from the planet Mercury. Awarded a prize postdoctoral fellowship at the California Institute of Technology in 1995; work there included computational fluid dynamic simulations of asteroid collisions, calibration of the Cassini spacecraft's dust-particle impact detector, and experimental shock compression of the mineral calcite. Transferred to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a staff engineer in 1997 to work on computer models and simulations of spacecraft optical instrument systems and to participate in a Laboratory-wide process re-engineering effort.

NASA Experience: Selected by NASA in June 1998, he reported for training in August 1998. Basic Astronaut Candidate training included orientation briefings and tours, numerous scientific and technical classes, intensive instruction in Space Shuttle and International Space Station systems, and physiological training, ground school, and water and wilderness survival instruction to prepare for T-38 flight training. After completion of the basic syllabus, Dr. Love received advanced astronaut training including Extravehicular Activity (EVA) classes and suited underwater practice sessions in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory ( NBL), coursework and extensive simulator training to operate the Shuttle and Station robotic arms, instruction and qualification as a copilot for the rendezvous and docking of the Shuttle with another orbiting spacecraft, and wilderness and cold-weather leadership and survival training in Alaska, Utah, and Canada.

In his first technical assignment (1999), Dr. Love served the Astronaut Office as a representative to the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems engineering group preparing for the first crews aboard Station. That work led to an appointment (2000) as a CAPCOM (spacecraft communicator) in Mission Control for Station Expeditions 1 through 7 and for Shuttle missions STS-104 (ISS-7A), STS-108 (ISS-UF-1), and STS-112 (ISS-9A). Following the Columbia accident (2003) he served in the Astronaut Office's Exploration Branch, where he participated in the Orbital Space Plane Expendable Launch Vehicle Human Flight Safety Certification Study, helped develop requirements for future human-rated launch systems including the Ares I, investigated the polar environment as an analog for future space missions as a member of the 2004-2005 Antarctic Search for Meteorites (ANSMET) expedition, and served on the Source Evaluation Board for the pivotal Orion Phase 2 contract. In 2008 Dr. Love completed his first spaceflight on the crew of STS-122, logging over 306 hours in space, including over 15 EVA hours in two spacewalks.

Space Flight Experience: STS-122 Atlantis (February 7-20, 2008) was the 24th Shuttle mission to visit the International Space Station. The primary objective of the flight was to carry the European Space Agency's Columbus Laboratory module to the Space Station and install it there permanently. Dr. Love performed two spacewalks to help prepare the Columbus Laboratory for installation, to add two science payloads to the outside of Columbus, and to carry a failed Station gyroscope to the Shuttle for return to Earth. STS-122 was also a crew replacement mission, delivering Expedition-16 Flight Engineer, ESA Astronaut Léopold Eyharts, and returning home with Expedition-16 Flight Engineer, NASA Astronaut Daniel Tani. The STS-122 mission was accomplished in 12 days, 18 hours, 21 minutes and 40 seconds, and traveled 5,296,832 statute miles in 203 Earth orbits.