[image-168][image-95][image-186]NASA's TRMM Satellite Calculates Hurricanes Fay and Gonzalo Rainfall
The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission or TRMM satellite can estimate rainfall rates from its orbit in space and that data is used to create a rainfall analysis and calculate total rainfall for weather events in the tropics. NASA used TRMM and other satellite data to calculate rainfall from Atlantic hurricanes Fay and Gonzalo.
Tropical Storm Fay battered Bermuda on October 12, 2014 and became a hurricane after passing the island. The following Friday powerful Hurricane Gonzalo passed directly over the island on Friday October 17, 2014 causing flooding and damage to many structures. The remnants of Gonzalo also pounded the British Islands with winds exceeding 70 mph causing the death of at least one person.
An analysis of rainfall was conducted on Fay and Gonzalo as they moved through the central Atlantic Ocean and over Bermuda. The analysis was based on near real time TRMM-based precipitation estimates (TMPA) that were produced by merging data from several satellites.
The analysis showed that Gonzalo generated several areas over the Atlantic Ocean where rainfall totals topped 12 inches (300 mm). Fay's maximum rainfall was between 4 and 8 inches (100-200 mm).
The rainfall estimates have been developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland by the precipitation research team. The type of data used in this analysis is expected to be superseded by a Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission product in late 2014.
TRMM is managed by NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. For more information about TRMM, visit: trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov. For more information about GPM, visit: www.nasa.gov/gpm.
SSAI/NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
[image-132][image-150]Oct. 15, 2014 - Satellites Confirm Fay Weakened to a Tropical Storm
The fifth named Atlantic storm didn't maintain hurricane status long. Fay became a hurricane late on Oct. 12 and by early on Oct. 13, had weakened back to a tropical storm.
A visible image from NOAA's GOES-East satellite on Oct. 13 at 1145 UTC (7:45 a.m. EDT) showed Tropical Storm Fay northeast of Bermuda and Tropical Storm Gonzalo over the Lesser Antilles. Fay appeared circular, but didn't have the signature shape of a tropical storm like Gonzalo, with bands of thunderstorms spiraling into the center. The image was created by the NASA/NOAA GOES Project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.
The National Hurricane Center noted that microwave imagery showed Fay has begun extra-tropical transition. NHC discussion said: The cloud pattern has become quite asymmetric and the remaining central deep convection, situated well to the northeast of the center of circulation, is decreasing.
At 5 a.m. EDT on Oct. 13, Tropical Storm Fay's maximum sustained winds were near 65 mph (100 kph) and gradually weakening. It was centered near latitude 34.3 north and longitude 55.3 west. Fay was about 565 miles (910 km) east-northeast of Bermuda and moving to the east at 26 mph (43 kph)..
The NHC expects Fay to merge with a frontal zone and become an extra-tropical cyclone by tonight, Oct. 13.
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
[image-50]Oct. 12, 2014 - Satellite Sees Cold Front Headed to Absorb Bermuda's Tropical Storm Fay
Tropical Storm Fay is affecting Bermuda on Sunday, Oct. 12, but a cold front over the eastern U.S. is expected to absorb the storm over the next day or two. Both were seen in an image from NOAA's GOES-East satellite.
On Saturday, Oct. 11, Tropical Depression 7 became Tropical Storm Fay in the Atlantic. By Oct. 12, Fay was nearing hurricane strength while it was less than 100 miles from Bermuda. NOAA's GOES-East satellite captured an image of the storm.
On Sunday, Oct. 12, Bermuda was placed under a Hurricane Watch and Tropical Storm Warning as Fay neared. NOAA GOES-East satellite provided an image of Fay near Bermuda that showed clouds associated with a cold front over the U.S. that are expected to absorb Fay sometime on Monday, Oct. 13. The image was created by the NASA/NOAA GOES Project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.
[image-77]At 8 a.m. EDT on Saturday, October 11, 2014, the center of tropical storm fay was located near latitude 27.1 north and longitude 65.2 west. The storm was moving toward the north near 12 mph. Maximum sustained winds were near 60 mph.
Twenty four hours later on Sunday, Oct. 12, Fay's maximum sustained winds were near hurricane-strength at 70 mph (110 kph), although little change in strength is forecast during the next 24 Hours. Fay is expected to become a post-tropical cyclone at night (on Oct. 12).
The center of tropical storm fay was near latitude 33.4 north and longitude 63.9 west, just about 85 miles (140 km) north-northeast of Bermuda. Fay was moving toward the north-northeast near 20 mph (31 kph) and the National Hurricane Center forecasts a turn toward the east-northeast and faster forward movement. On the forecast track, the center of Fay will continue to move away from Bermuda today.
By Monday, Oct. 12, Fay is expected to be absorbed by a cold front.
For an updated forecast, visit; www.nhc.noaa.gov.
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
[image-69][image-96]Oct. 10, 2014 - NASA Sees Birth of Atlantic's Subtropical Depression 7: Bermuda on Watch
The seventh depression of the Atlantic Ocean Hurricane Season was born on Oct. 10, but it's subtropical. NASA's Aqua satellite looked at the developing depression in infrared light and saw strong thunderstorms within.
The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured data on developing Subtropical Depression 7 on Oct. 10 at 05:41 UTC (1:41 a.m. EDT). AIRS identified several areas of strong thunderstorms around the developing center of circulation. Some of those thunderstorms were high in the troposphere with cloud top temperatures near -63F/-53C and had the potential for dropping heavy rainfall. The circulation continued to organize after Aqua passed by and a depression formed.
A Tropical Storm Watch was posted at 11 a.m. EDT on Oct. 10 for Bermuda. The National Hurricane Center noted that tropical storm conditions are possible on Bermuda late Saturday, Oct. 11 or on Sunday, Oct. 12.
A subtropical cyclone, which is what this depression is, is different from a tropical depression. Here's how the National Hurricane Center distinguishes subtropical from tropical: A subtropical cyclone, like Subtropical Depression 7, "is a non-frontal low-pressure system that has characteristics of both tropical and extra-tropical cyclones. Like tropical cyclones, they are non-frontal, synoptic or large-scale cyclones that originate over tropical or subtropical waters, and have a closed surface wind circulation about a well-defined center. In addition, they have organized moderate to deep convection (development of clouds and thunderstorms from rising air), but lack a central dense overcast. Unlike tropical cyclones, subtropical cyclones derive a significant proportion of their energy from baroclinic sources, and are generally cold-core in the upper troposphere, often being associated with an upper-level elongated low pressure area or trough. In comparison to tropical cyclones, these systems generally have a radius of maximum winds occurring relatively far from the center (usually greater than 60 nautical miles), and generally have a less rounded (symmetric) wind field and distribution of convection."
At 11 a.m. EDT the center of subtropical depression Seven was located near latitude 23.8 north and longitude 63.7 west. That puts the center of Subtropical Depression 7 about 590 miles (950 km) south of Bermuda. Maximum sustained winds are near 35 mph (55 kph) with higher gusts. Some strengthening is forecast and the depression is forecast to become a subtropical storm later today.
Subtropical Depression 7's estimated minimum central pressure is 1005 millibars. The depression is moving toward the northwest near 10 mph (17 kph). A gradual turn toward the north, followed by a turn toward the northeast on Sunday.
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center