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  1. SOME OPERATIONAL ASPECTS OF USING A HIGH-PERFORMANCE AIRPLANE AS A FIRST-STAGE BOOSTER FOR AIR-LAUNCHING SOLID-FUEL BOUNDING ROCKETS , Technical Note
    Authors: V. W. Horton and W. E. Messing
    Report Number: NASA-TN-D-1279
    Performing Organization: NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA
    Abstract: Five test vehicles were air-launched from an F-104A airplane to investigate some of the operational aspects and the practicability of using the energy input of the airplane as a first-stage booster for sounding rockets. A launch maneuver and launcher system were developed and matched to the airplane’s capabilities so that suitable repeatability of launch parameters was attained.
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    Subject Category: 15
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    Report Date: January 1963
    No. Pages: 23
    Keywords:      Air launching; Aircraft performance; Boosters; F-104 aircraft; Rocket engines; Solid propellant rocket engines; Sounding rockets


  2. PRELIMINARY FLIGHT EVALUATION OF TWO UNPOWERED MANNED PARAGLIDERS , Technical Note
    Authors: G. P. Layton, Jr. and M. O. Thompson
    Report Number: NASA-TN-D-1826
    Performing Organization: NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA
    Abstract: Towed and free-flight tests were made with unpowered, manned paragliders to study the performance, stability, and control characteristics of a typical paraglider. The paragliders used had maximum lift-drag ratios greater than 3.5 and wing loadings of approximately 4.0 lb/sq ft. The airspeed range was limited by the rearward center-of-pressure shift at angles of attack above and below trim angle of attack. Performance data obtained from flight tests are presented and compared with analytical results. Center-of-gravity shift, accomplished by tilting the wing relative to the fuselage, was used for control. This method of control was adequate for towed and free flight as well as for flare and landing. The pilot’s evaluation of the vehicle’s handling qualities, and a discussion of development problems are presented.
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    Subject Category: 05
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    Report Date: April 1963
    No. Pages: 33
    Keywords:      Flight tests; Paragliders; Towed bodies


  3. CALIBRATIONS AND COMPARISONS OF PRESSURE-AIRSPEED-ALTITUDE SYSTEMS OF THE X-15 AIRPLANE FROM SUBSONIC TO HIGH SUPERSONIC , Technical Note
    Authors: T. J. Larson and L. D. Webb
    Report Number: NASA-TN-D-1724
    Performing Organization: NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA
    Abstract: The X-15 flight calibration data to define static-pressure position errors are presented for two types of pressure-sensing configurations: a standard NACA pitot-static tube attached to a nose boom, and two manifolded flush static-pressure ports on the ogive nose. The position-error calibrations are presented up to M = 3.31 for the standard nose boom installation and up to M = 4 for the flush static system. Presented also are stagnation-pressure errors sensed by a pitot probe ahead of the canopy. Methods used to determine the position errors are described. The nose-boom configuration is shown to be superior from the standpoint of position error and ease of calibration for the available data range.
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    Subject Category: 01
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    Report Date: February 1963
    No. Pages: 37
    Keywords:      Airspeed; Altimeters; Angle of attack; Calibrating; Ogives; Position errors; Rawinsondes; Stagnation pressure; Static pressure; Subsonic speed; Supersonic speed; X-15 aircraft


  4. FLIGHT-SIMULATOR REQUIREMENTS FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE AIRCRAFT BASED ON X-15 EXPERIENCE , Conference Paper
    Authors: E. C. Holleman and W. S. Wilson
    Report Number: H-304
    Performing Organization: NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA
    Abstract: Review of the simulation experience acquired during the design and flight testing of the X-15 research airplane. Discussed are the problems encountered and the use of simulators in their solution, with particular reference to the X-15 fixed-base simulator. Simulator techniques which may be used in the supersonic-transport program, such as a variable-stability airborne simulator, are suggested.
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    Subject Category: 33
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    Report Date: March 1963
    No. Pages: 12
    Keywords:      Aircraft performance; Flight simulators; X-15 aircraft
    Notes: ASME Paper 63-AHGT-81. Presented at the ASME Aviation and Space, Hydraulics, and Gas Turbine Conference and Products Show, Los Angeles, California, March 3-7, 1963.


  5. HANDLING QUALITIES AND TRAJECTORY REQUIREMENTS FOR TERMINAL LUNAR LANDING, AS DETERMINED FROM ANALOG SIMULATION , Technical Note
    Authors: G. J. Matranga, H. P. Washington, P. L. Chenoweth and W. R. Young
    Report Number: NASA-TN-D-1921
    Performing Organization: NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA
    Abstract: A six-degree-of-freedom analog study was performed to aid in defining handling qualities and trajectory potential for terminal lunar landing. Results showed that, for a maneuvering task in the pitch mode and a random-motion-correction task in the roll and yaw modes, the pilots preferred rate or attitude command with control accelerations of about 10 deg/sec and reasonable artificial damping. Also, to consistently perform successful landings, the pilots generally used thrust-to-weight ratios throttled between a minimum value of 0.8 lunar g and maximum value of 1.8 lunar g.
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    Subject Category: 12
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    Report Date: August 1963
    No. Pages: 34
    Keywords:      Analog simulation; Controllability; Landing simulation; Lunar landing; Spacecraft trajectories; Trajectories


  6. OPERATIONAL FLIGHT-TEST EXPERIENCE WITH THE X-15 AIRPLANE , Conference Paper
    Authors: Perry V. Row and Jack Fischel
    Report Number: H-310
    Performing Organization: NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA
    Abstract: Review of the experience of the NASA Flight Research Center in coping with the problems of component and system checkout and operational flight procedures in an advanced flight research program. The operational evolution of the most troublesome and the most important systems on the North American X-15 is discussed, and operational and research data are presented. Procedures now being utilized and those that will be applied to newer systems are also discussed. The use of a flight simulator to check out several flight systems and to practice normal and emergency operational procedures is assessed. Finally, the flight operational techniques evolved for ground monitoring of flight systems data and flight-trajectory information to provide pilot backup support are described. Evidence is introduced to show how these techniques have facilitated the rapid expansion of the flight envelope and have aided in achievement of research objectives.
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    Report Date: March 1963
    No. Pages: 37
    Keywords:      Aircraft performance; Checkout; Flight tests; NASA programs; X-15 aircraft
    Notes: AIAA Paper 63-075. Presented at the AIAA Space Flight Testing Conference, Cocoa Beach, Florida, March 18-20, 1963.


  7. THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE SLIDEOUT DYNAMICS OF A VEHICLE EQUIPPED WITH A TRICYCLE SKID-LANDING-GEAR SYSTEM , Technical Note
    Authors: R. L. Halasey and R. B. Noll
    Report Number: NASA-TN-D-1828
    Performing Organization: NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA
    Abstract: The equations-of-motion for the slideout of a vehicle equipped with a tricycle skid-type landing-gear system are presented and reduced to three degrees of freedom. A comparison of the results of numerical calculations for the three-degree-of-freedom slideout of the X-15 research vehicle with flight-test results shows that the theoretical analysis of the slideout can adequately predict the slideout distance, the direction of lateral displacement, and the approximate lateral displacement. A numerical study of the slideout equations indicates that the velocity at which the aerodynamic influence on the vehicle becomes negligible can be predicted.
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    Subject Category: 18
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    Report Date: May 1963
    No. Pages: 32
    Keywords:      Comparison; Controllability; Equations of motion; Landing gear; Skid landings; Spacecraft; X-15 aircraft


  8. FLIGHT RESEARCH CENTER INSTRUMENTATIONPROGRAM , Conference Paper
    Authors: T. J. Ferguson
    Report Number: H-312
    Performing Organization: NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA
    Abstract: No Abstract Available
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    Subject Category: 01
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    Report Date: June 1963
    No. Pages: 7
    Keywords:      Airborne equipment; Aircraft instruments; Beacons; Computers; Conferences; Data acquisition; Data processing; Electro-optics; Flight instruments; Instrument packages; Light sources; Lunar landing; Maasuring instruments; Monochromatic radiation
    Notes: Proceedings of the Optical Communication and Tracking Symposium, June 1963.


  9. THE X-15 PROGRAM , Conference Paper
    Authors: J. A. Walker and J. Weil
    Report Number: H-313
    Performing Organization: NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA
    Abstract: Review of the important operational problems encountered in the flights of the North American X-15 aircraft. The history of the project is considered, outlining the design development and the flight tests, including aerodynamic configurations, mode of operation, flight program, and performance. Summarized is the operational experience, such as the structural and thermostructural problems, and the rocket engines, auxiliary-power-unit, and the control and guidance systems experience. The piloting aspects of the X-15 mission are described, including the boost, entry, and landing techniques.
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    Subject Category: 05
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    Report Date: January 1963
    No. Pages: 13
    Keywords:      Manned space flight; X-15 aircraft
    Notes: Proceedings of AIAA 2nd Manned Space Flight Meeting, AD-400711, April 22-24, 1963, pp. 295-307.


  10. X-15 STRUCTURAL TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS AND CALCULATIONS FOR FLIGHTS TO MAXIMUM MACHNUMBERS OF APPROXIMATELY 4, 5, AND 6 , Technical Memorandum
    Authors: J. D. Watts and R. P. Banas
    Report Number: NASA-TM-X-883
    Performing Organization: NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA
    Abstract: Structural temperatures on the X-l5 airplane were measured continuously during three performance-envelope expansion flights to maximum Mach numbers of approximately 4, 5, and 6. Tabulations of temperature time histories, representing all surfaces and some wing internal structure, are presented for these flights. Methods of predicting surface temperature levels and gradients are described, and the resulting calculations are compared with measured temperatures.
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    Subject Category: 01
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    Report Date: August 1963
    No. Pages: 66
    Keywords:      Supersonic flight; Surface temperature; Temperature measurement; X-15 aircraft


  11. THE APPLICATION OF ANALOG AND DIGITAL COMPUTER TECHNIQUES IN THE X-15 FLIGHT RESEARCHPROGRAM , Conference Paper
    Authors: R. D. Banner, J. P. Smith and E. N. Videan
    Report Number: H-319
    Performing Organization: NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA
    Abstract: This paper is limited, however, to the particular area of computer application to research flight planning and system implementation. Two systems are described, one analog and one digital, which support the flight planning and system implementation. Today, because of changing flight test requirements, a relatively sophisticated and complete simulation system is considered necessary to carry on a flight research program.
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    Subject Category: 01
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    Report Date: January 1963
    No. Pages: 8
    Keywords:      Computer techniques; Computerized simulation; Flight conditions; Flight simulators; Hybrid computers; In-flight monitoring; Iteration; X-15 aircraft
    Notes: Presented at the International Symposium on Analog and Digital Techniques Applied to Aeronautics, Liege, Belgium, September 9-12, 1963.


  12. AN ADVANCED METHOD FOR AIRBORNE SIMULATION , Technical Memorandum
    Authors: H. A. Rediess and D. A. Deets
    Report Number: NASA-TM-X-51360
    Performing Organization: NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA
    Abstract: The NASA Flight Research Center has conducted and sponsored studies leading to the design and developments of a general-purpose airborne simulator (GPAS) to support the supersonic-transport program and to perform general research. This paper presents some of the results of these studies. The response feedback, and the model-control concepts for an airborne simulator are discussed and evaluated. The model-following performance of the system designed for the GPAS, and, other results believed generally applicable are also presented.
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    Subject Category: 01
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    Report Date: December 1963
    No. Pages: 7
    Keywords:      Flight simulators; Flight tests; Simulation; Supersonic transports
    Notes: Presented at the AIAA, AFFTC, and NASA FRC Testing of Manned Flight Systems Conference, Edwards, California, December 4-6, 1963, pp. 33-39.


  13. EXPLORATORY FLIGHT TESTS OF ADVANCED PILOTED SPACECRAFT CONCEPTS , Technical Memorandum
    Authors: V. W. Horton, G. P. Layton, Jr. and M. O. Thompson
    Report Number: NASA-TM-X-51360
    Performing Organization: NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA
    Abstract: No abstract available.
    Distribution/Availability: Unclassified - Unlimited
    Subject Category: 12
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    Report Date: January 1963
    No. Pages: 29
    Keywords:      Flight tests; M-2 lifting body
    Notes: Presented at the AIAA, AFFTC, and NASA FRC Testing of Manned Flight Systems Conference, Edwards, California, December 4-6, 1963.


  14. UTILIZATION OF EXISTING AIRCRAFT IN SUPPORT OF SUPERSONIC-TRANSPORT RESEARCH PROGRAMS , Technical Memorandum
    Authors: W. H. Andrews and T. R. Sisk
    Report Number: NASA-TM-X-51360
    Performing Organization: NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA
    Abstract: The supersonic transport will not necessarily be derivative of a previous military airplane, as are the current family of jet transports. Therefore, full-scale test data and operational experience for this vehicle will be limited, and in some areas nonexistent. In an attempt to fill this void, the NASA Flight Research Center has initiated several programs utilizing existing high-performance aircraft to investigate some of the problems predicted in the supersonic-transport operational environment. This paper discusses three of these programs: a minimum-flight-speed investigation utilizing an F5D aircraft, and Air Traffic Control (ATC) compatibility program utilizing an A-5A aircraft, and specific vehicle research on the XB-70 aircraft.
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    Subject Category: 01
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    Report Date: December 1963
    No. Pages: 10
    Keywords:      Aircraft performance; Fighter aircraft; Flight simulators; Flight tests; Supersonic aircraft; Supersonic transports
    Notes: Presented at the AIAA, AFFTC, and NASA FRC Testing of Manned Flight Systems Conference, Edwards, California, December 4-6, 1963, pp. 67-76


  15. AERODYNAMIC AND CONTROL-SYSTEM CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE X-15 AIRPLANE LANDING-GEAR LOADS , Technical Note
    Authors: R. B. Noll, C. R. Jarvis, C. Pembo, W. P. Lock and B. J. Scott
    Report Number: NASA-TN-D-2090
    Performing Organization: NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA
    Abstract: The effects of the X-15 manual flight control and stability augmentation systems on the horizontal-tail load, and the effect of wing-flap position on the wing load during touchdown are investigated. Methods for significantly reducing the maximum total load on the main gear during landings are described. Data from typical X-15 landings and from landings in which modified touchdown techniques were used are presented and compared.
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    Subject Category: 01
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    Report Date: October 1963
    No. Pages: 35
    Keywords:      Flight control; Horizontal tail surfaces; Loads (forces); Manual control; Stability; Touchdown; X-15 aircraft