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Carnegie lab
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Carnegie Institution experiments conducted by NASA and Carnegie scientists:

Scientists soon hope to better assess the probability of large earthquakes several days in advance using data now available from satellites. Satellites are being used to detect telltale infrared emissions, electric and magnetic signals, and changes in the ionosphere that may occur days before large earthquakes.

A key laboratory experiment and data from international satellites have already provided evidence that some early earthquake signs are real. Friedemann Freund of NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif.: co-investigators from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., and the Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution, Washington, D.C., observed infrared emissions from blocks of granite when they were placed under tremendous stress with a 1,500-ton press. The press mimicked what happens miles below the Earth's surface prior to earthquakes. A very sensitive, newly developed infrared camera from NASA Goddard snapped images of the rocks.

Click here for more images from the Carnegie experiments.


granite crushed
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granite crushed
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India Jan. 6, 2001
satellite image India Jan 6, 2001
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Satellite-derived images: January 26, 2001 Bhuj earthquake, Gujarat, India.

Origin Time 03:16 GMT Location 23.399N 70.316E Magnitude7.6Ms Depth 17 km

This data sequence of infrared data images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the NASA Terra satellite of the region surrounding Gujarat, India shows a ‘thermal anomaly’ appearing on January 21, 2001 prior to the January 26th quake. The anomaly disappears shortly after the quake January 28, 2001. The anomaly area appears yellow-orange. The boxed star in the images indicates the earthquake’s epicenter. The region of thermal anomaly seems to be to the southeast of the Bhuj region.

The 7.9 magnitude quake occurred at 8:46 am January 26, 2001 in the state of Gujarat, India. The epicenter was near the desert town of Bhuj. Gujarat’s commercial center, Ahmedabad, about 400 kilometers away reported the most damage.

The Mw7.6 Bhuj earthquake that shook the Indian Province of Gujarat on the morning of January 26, 2001 (Republic Day) is one of the two most deadly earthquakes to strike India in its recorded history. One month after the earthquake official Government of India figures place the death toll at 19,727 and the number of injured at 166,000. Indications are that 600,000 people were left homeless, with 348,000 houses destroyed and an additional 844,000 damaged. The Indian State Department estimates that the earthquake affected, directly or indirectly, 15.9 million people out of a total population of 37.8 million. More than 20,000 cattle are reported killed. Government estimates place direct economic losses at $1.3 billion. Other estimates indicate losses may be as high as $5 billion.

India Jan 6, 2001 Base
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India, Jan. 21, 2001

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India, Jan. 21, 2001, base
Satellite Image, India, Jan. 21, 2001, base
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India, Jan. 28, 2001
Satellite image, India, Jan. 28, 2001
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India, Jan. 28, 2001, Base

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picture 4

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Loma Preita Earthquake images, San Francisico (generic earthquake images):

4. Aerial view of collapsed buildings and burned-out section at Beach and Divisadero Streets, Marina District. [Please credit photo to C.E. Meyer, U.S. Geological Survey]


7. Absence of adequate shear walls on the garage level exacerbated damage to this structure at the corner of Beach and Divisadero Streets, Marina District. [J.K. Nakata, U.S. Geological Survey]

9. An automobile lies crushed under the third story of this apartment building in the Marina District. The ground levels are no longer visible because of structural failure and sinking due to liquefaction. [J.K. Nakata, U.S. Geological Survey]

On October 17, 1989, at 5:04:15 p.m. PDT, a magnitude 6.9 (moment magnitude; surface-wave magnitude, 7.1) earthquake severely shook the San Francisco and Monterey Bay regions. The epicenter was located at 37.04° N. latitude, 121.88° W. longitude near Loma Prieta peak in the Santa Cruz Mountains, approximately 14 km (9 mi) northeast of Santa Cruz and 96 km (60 mi) south-southeast of San Francisco. The earthquake occurred when the crustal rocks comprising the Pacific and North American Plates abruptly slipped as much as 2 meters (7 ft) along their common boundary-the San Andreas fault system. The rupture initiated at a depth of 18 km (11 mi) and extended 35 km (22 mi) along the fault, but it did not break the surface of the Earth.

Please credit Loma Prieta earthquake photos to the U.S. Geological Survey. Also please credit the photographers of the images you may use. Complete information and additional publication-size photographs are available on the USGSwebsite at:

(When you reach this page, you can scroll down about midway to find Photo CD images that may be downloaded in high resolution and saved in another format by means of image-editing software.)

picture 7

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picture 9
1989 Earthquake, San Francisco
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