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Physical Science Units and Lessons for Grades 4-6

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#### Physical Science Units and Lessons

Aeronautics Unit
 Lesson Description Prep Time Lesson Time Needed Complexity Air Foils Students investigate how an airfoil creates lift. Design an airfoil and construct a model of an airfoil.Keywords: airfoils, wings, flight, smart skies, space math, x-plane, wright, propulsion, forces of flight, Bernoulli 2 Hours 2 Hours Moderate Bag Balloon Students construct a working model of a hot air balloon.Keywords: temperature, heat, air, gas, lift 3 Hours 2 Hours Basic Bernoulli and More Bernoulli Six easy and simple experiments that explain Bernoulli's principle.Keywords: aerodynamics, Bernoulli's principle 1 Hour 1 Hour Basic Controlling the Plane Students construct a working model straw glider, identify the major parts of an airplane and experimentally determine how the ailerons, elevators and rudders control a glider.Keywords: aeronautics, parts of a plane 1 Hour 2 Hours Moderate Designing Aircraft in Five Easy Steps -- It's a Challenge! Students learn how NASA engineers develop and test experimental aircraft to solve a specific problem by using the engineering design process. 45 Minutes 1-1.5 Hours Basic Fluttering Fun, Point of Balance Activities designed to learn an object's center of gravity and how it can be changed.Keywords: center of gravity, weight and balance 1 Hour 1 Hour Basic Four Forces of Flight A game that helps students learn the terms associated with flight: lift, thrust, drag and weight.Keywords: aeronautics 1 Hour 1 Hour Basic Jet Propulsion Build a model to demonstrate how thrust is created in a jet engine.Keywords: thrust, engine 2 Hours 2 Hours Advanced

Forces and Motion Unit
 Lesson Description Prep Time Lesson Time Needed Complexity Danger: Space Debris Activities designed to examine the physics and dangers of natural and man-made debris traveling through space.Keywords: Newton's Laws of Motion, force, friction, energy, momentum 45 Minutes 4 Hours Moderate Inertia and Friction Activities examine the relationship between mass, inertia, acceleration, force, friction and speed.Keywords: Newton's laws, mass, inertia, acceleration, force, friction, thrust, staging, rocket design 1 Hour 2.5 Hours Moderate Thrust, Air Pressure Rockets and Newton's Third Law Activities designed to examine thrust and Newton's Third Law applied to rockets and cars propelled by air pressure.Keywords: thrust, rocket design, Newton's third law 1 Hour 4 Hours Moderate

Gravity Unit
 Lesson Description Prep Time Lesson Time Needed Complexity Fighting Gravity -- A Matter of Balance Activities highlight what must be done to overcome effects of gravity for Earth orbit.Keywords: gravity, center of mass, center of gravity, balance, weight 1 Hour 2 Hours Basic Gravity Games Activities designed to demonstrate gravity's role in recreation.Keywords: friction, gravity, inertia, energy, microgravity, marble, toy, motion, sports, games, center of mass, center of gravity 1.5 Hours 9 Hours Moderate Heavy Duty Topics Activities highlight the difference between mass and weight.Keywords: gravity, inertia, weight, mass, period, periodic motion, center of mass, balance 1 Hour 7.5 Hours Moderate

Properties of Matter
 Lesson Description Prep Time Lesson Time Needed Complexity Composite Materials Students examine several samples of carbon fiber materials. Measure at least one sample and determine its volume. Calculate a sample's density.Keywords: liquid, solid, gas, density, chemicals, matter, properties, alloys, cube, mass metals 20 Minutes 1-2 Hours Moderate Nature of Salt Students examine the molecular structure of salt and the elements that compose it.Keywords: matter, properties, ionic, molecular, compounds 10 Minutes 45 Minutes Basic Reaction Rates Activities to help students discover conditions that make a reaction proceed faster or slower. Students demonstrate how increasing the surface area of a chemical increases its reaction rate.Keywords: chemical reactions, antacid, gas, liquid 10 Minutes 1 Hour Basic Space Weather Lesson explores the origins, processes and risks associated with solar radiation including how it travels through the solar system, affects the Earth's magnetosphere and poses a threat to astronauts and spacecraft.Keywords: radiation, hidden, exposure, magnetometer, magnetic fields, magnetic storms, solar storms, solar eruptions 4 Hours 2-3 Days Advanced States of Matter Construct a rocket powered by pressurized gas created from a chemical reaction between a solid and a liquid.Keywords: density, mass, atoms, molecules, heat, spaceflight, weight, solutions, rockets, pressure, gas 2 Hours 4 Hours Moderate Student Glovebox Students design their own investigation of the characteristics of various liquids.Keywords: liquids, box, experiment 4 Hours 4 Hours Moderate

Waves and Optics Unit
 Lesson Description Prep Time Lesson Time Needed Complexity Making Use of the EM Spectrum Activities designed to demonstrate methods of using the electromagnetic spectrum to learn about our universe.Keywords: reflection, refraction, diffraction, medium, passive detection, waves, light, magnifier 1 Hour 2.5 Hours Basic Manipulating Waves Activities designed to demonstrate methods of manipulating waves and applications of that manipulation.Keywords: reflection, refraction, diffraction, magnification, spectrum, medium, interference 1 Hour 6.5 Hours Moderate Wave Measurements Activities guide the students to explore the relationship between frequency and wavelength and apply it to explain the Doppler effect.Keywords: Doppler effect, wavelength, frequency, energy, rotation, relative motion 1 Hour 3.5 Hours Moderate

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