The HICO and RAIDS Experiment Payload - Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (HREP-RAIDS) experiment provides atmospheric scientists with a complete description of the major constituents of the thermosphere and ionosphere. The thermosphere is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere where the International Space Station (ISS) orbits the Earth, and the ionosphere is the portion of the upper atmosphere that affects radio waves. RAIDS provides density, composition, temperature and electron density profiles at altitudes between 95 - 300 kilometers.Principal Investigator(s)
The Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, CA, United States
United States Department of Defense Space Test Program, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, United States
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)Sponsoring Organization
National Laboratory - Department of Defense (NL-DoD)ISS Expedition Duration:
March 2009 - March 2014
19/20,21/22,23/24,25/26,27/28,29/30,31/32,33/34,35/36,37/38Previous ISS Missions
HREP-RAIDS is a unique investigation that has not been performed on spacecraft before.
The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) and Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) Experiment Payload (HREP) consists of two instruments. The HREP-RAIDS is an experiment designed to perform a comprehensive study of naturally occurring airglow emissions in the upper atmosphere. HREP-RAIDS observations are used to develop and test techniques for remote sensing of the neutral atmosphere and ionosphere on a global scale. HREP-RAIDS is an array of eight optical instruments covering the wavelength region 55 - 870 nanometers and measures the vertical structure of the atmosphere. The experiment scans or images the limb of the Earth to measure profiles of airglow from major ionospheric and neutral atmospheric species in the upper atmosphere. HREP-RAIDS measurements are used to determine the composition and temperature of the thermosphere and ionosphere. HREP-RAIDS tests new techniques for atmospheric remote sensing and looks for signs of global change.
HREP-RAIDS tests new techniques for ionospheric and neutral atmospheric remote sensing and studies atmospheric temperature, composition, and chemistry.Earth Applications
Data from this investigation improves knowledge of a poorly-studied region of Earth's atmosphere and leads to improved atmospheric models and better prediction of satellite drag and debris tracking.
HREP-RAIDS is mounted to the ISS exterior on JEM-EF at position number six. It requires power provided by the International Space Station (ISS), and uses the ISS for commanding and data downlink. All interaction is via the POIC and no crew interaction is planned other than installation and removal via extravehicular robotics (EVR).Operational Protocols
HREP-RAIDS launches to the ISS as a part of the HTV-1 mission. EVR mounts HREP to the JEM-EF and removes it for disposal on a later HTV flight.
Stephan AW, Picone M, Budzien SA, Bishop RL, Christensen AB, Hecht JH. Measurement and application of the O II 61.7 nm dayglow. Journal of Geophysical Research. 2012 Jan 25; 117: A01316. DOI: 10.1029/2011JA016897.
Douglas ES, Smith SM, Stephan AW, Cashman L, Bishop RL, Budzien SA, Christensen AB, Hecht JH, Chakrabarti S. Evaluation of ionospheric densities using coincident OII 83.4 nm airglow and the Millstone Hill Radar. Journal of Geophysical Research. 2012 May 31; 117: A05331. DOI: 10.1029/2012JA01757.
Budzien SA, Bishop RL, Stephan AW, Christensen AB, McMullin DR. Atmospheric Remote Sensing on the International Space Station. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union. 2010; 91: 381-382.
Christensen AB, Yee J, Bishop RL, Budzien SA, Hecht JH, Sivjee G, Stephan AW. Observations of molecular oxygen Atmospheric band emission in the thermosphere using the near infrared spectrometer on the ISS/RAIDS experiment. Journal of Geophysical Research. 2012 Apr 24; 117: A04315. DOI: 10.1029/2011JA016838.
Budzien SA, Bishop RL, Stephan AW, Straus PR, Christensen AB, Hecht JH. The Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System experiment on the ISS: Mission Overview. Solar Physics and Space Instrumentation III, Proc. SPIE. 2009; 7438: 0X1-0X12. DOI: 10.1117/12.826513.