Observation Analysis of Smectic Islands in Space (OASIS) - 03.19.15

Overview | Description | Applications | Operations | Results | Publications | Imagery

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Science Objectives for Everyone
Observation and Analysis of Smectic Islands In Space (OASIS) studies the unique behavior of liquid crystals in microgravity, including their overall motion and the merging of crystal layers known as smectic islands. Liquid crystals are used for display screens in laptops, LCD television screens, watches clocks and many other consumer electronics that have flat panel displays, and they also occur in soaps and in biological cell membranes since these molecules have the same kind of orientational symmetry. A certain type of liquid crystal formed in quantized layers is known as Smectic which in Greek means soap. The experiment allows detailed studies of the structures and dynamics (interaction between layers, molecules of these structures at the absence of gravity.
Science Results for Everyone
Information Pending

The following content was provided by Padetha Tin, and is maintained in a database by the ISS Program Science Office.
Experiment Details

OpNom: OASIS

Principal Investigator(s)

  • Noel Clark, Ph.D., University of Colorado. Boulder, Boulder, CO, United States

  • Co-Investigator(s)/Collaborator(s)
  • Joseph Maclennan, Ph.D., University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States
  • Matt Glaser, Ph.D., University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States
  • Ralf Stannarius, Ph.D., Magdeburg University, D39106 Magdeburg, Germany
  • Alexandr Levchenko, Ph.D., Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
  • Vladimir Dolganov, Ph.D., Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
  • Pavel Dolganov, Ph.D., Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
  • Efim Kats, Ph.D., Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

  • Developer(s)
    ZIN Technologies Incorporated, Cleveland, OH, United States

    Sponsoring Space Agency
    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

    Sponsoring Organization
    Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD)

    Research Benefits
    Information Pending

    ISS Expedition Duration
    March 2015 - September 2015

    Expeditions Assigned
    43/44

    Previous ISS Missions
    Information Pending

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    Experiment Description

    Research Overview

    • OASIS seeks to increase understand of the unique behavior of liquid crystals in microgravity.
    • The OASIS experiment observes the various aspects of liquid crystals behavior in microgravity such as overall fluid motion, diffusion (the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to low concentration) and the merging of liquid crystal film layers called islands. Fundamental studies of complex fluid physics behavior in two dimensional fluids using freely suspended liquid crystals is accomplished.
    • The research advances the knowledge of two dimensional system physics of complex fluids, and also the understanding of well aligned, very high speed electro-optic devices, applicable to designing space helmets with embedded ferroelectric liquid crystal micro-displays.

    Description
    OASIS tests theories of hydrodynamic flow, of relaxation of hydrodynamic perturbations, and of hydrodynamic interactions in 2D. Freely suspended bubbles in microgravity, without islands, convection, and sedimentation represent nearly ideal, physically and chemically homogeneous 2D fluid systems for the precision study of 2D hydrodynamics. The effects of introducing islands or droplets is recorded, both as controllable inclusions that modify the flow and as markers of flow.

    A second goal is to study the behavior of collective systems of 1D layer step interfaces on 2D bubble surfaces, including the equilibrium spatial organization and interaction of islands, and the nonequilibrium coarsening dynamics of island emulsions. In addition to yielding information about a number of relatively weak physical effects (thickness-dependent surface tension and line tension, disjoining pressure, etc.), researchers anticipate that this will clarify the effects of dimensionality in coarsening dynamics (e.g., on dynamic scaling behavior), and interactions between islands and droplets in regimes where they are very weak, in the smectic A phase and at high temperature in the smectic C phase.

    The first thermocapillary tests homogeneous two dimensional fluids. The proposed microgravity experiments present a unique opportunity to explore thermocapillarity, the translational symmetry of the films and the absence of convection mitigating anomalous effects to the maximum extent possible, enabling detailed studies of the thermocapillarity of 2D fluids, also the dependence of surface tension and line tension on film thickness and Burgers vector. Ground-based experiments indicate that equilibrium and nonequilibrium island behavior should be sensitive to this dependence, enabling critical tests of extant theoretical predictions.

    Probing the effects of a spontaneously broken symmetry in the 2D film surface (the appearance of 2D polar, XY-like ordering and accompanying electrostatic polarization) on the interaction of islands, exploring the stability of topologically stabilized emulsions of 1D interfaces in 2D.

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    Applications

    Space Applications
    The newly designed crew cockpit of ORION uses virtual controls and EProc (electronic procedures) liquid crystal displays which significantly reduce the mass and complexity of regular control knobs and wires and cables. The EProc system allows the astronauts to manually refer to printed pages which can be displayed on fast responding liquid crystal screens to update procedures. Future space helmets could have certain types of liquid crystals in small display screens directly applied to the face shield where astronauts can easily view them. Understanding how liquid crystals behave in microgravity helps researchers to design liquid crystal displays (LCDs) that can perform better in space.

    Earth Applications
    The outcome of this research provides clues of finding new types of liquid crystals. These complex layers of liquid crystals lead to developing large but very high resolution television and display screens, holographic 3D display type cellular phones, very flexible liquid crystal screens, and screens that could change into different textures and feel, for example. Liquid crystals can flow like a liquid, but contain molecules that are arranged in a specific pattern, just like a crystal. Therefore greater understanding of the physics behind these structures could lead to improved liquid crystal display devices, including devices with improved color contrast and response times.

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    Operations

    Operational Requirements
    Information Pending

    Operational Protocols
    Information Pending

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    Results/More Information

    Information Pending

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    Related Websites
    The Liquid Crystal Materials Research Center
    Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers

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    Imagery

    image The OASIS hardware built inside Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). (NASA Image)
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    Bubble Chamber Insert

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    The OASIS Experiment Module above details two views of the assembly. On the right, the MSG GN2 (Gaseous Nitrogen) line is shown at the lower left of the assembly. The air jets, illuminating white light LED panels, and bubble chamber are shown with the external housing semi-transparent for clarity. In the assembly on the right hand side, a closer view of the bubble chamber shows the injector and macro view camera (Image courtesy of NASA Glenn Research Center).

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    Bubble Chamber Enclosure

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    Optics/Illumination Assembly

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    Smectic islands on bubble film Macro-observation system imaging (Image courtesy of NASA Glenn Research Center).

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