HICO and RAIDS Experiment Payload - Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HREP-HICO) - 09.17.14
ISS Science for Everyone
Science Objectives for Everyone
The HICO and RAIDS Experiment Payload - Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HREP-HICO) uses a special camera that separates light into hundreds of wavelength channels, which reveals information about the composition of water and land along the coasts. Each scene covers an area of about 30 miles by 125 miles, which captures features like river outflow plumes or algae blooms, and lets scientists do environmental characterization of coastal regions.
Science Results for Everyone
Thanks to a long-duration ISS experiment, cloud cover may no longer hinder taking images from space. The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) is a special camera that separates light into hundreds of wavelengths to reveal details about the Earth’s coasts, including water depth and visibility. HICO data was used to develop an effective technique to remove thin cirrus effect -- which is when thin cirrus clouds contaminate images taken in low-Earth orbit by satellites – from ocean images. The technique may be applicable with other instruments photographing Earth as well.
The Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, CA, United States
United States Department of Defense Space Test Program, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, United States
Sponsoring Space Agency
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
National Laboratory - Department of Defense (NL-DoD)
ISS Expedition Duration
March 2009 - October 2015
Previous ISS Missions
HREP-HICO is a unique investigation that has not been performed on spacecraft before.
- HICO and RAIDS Experiment Payload (HREP) combines two experiment sensors: the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) and the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS), into one payload.
- HREP-HICO operates a visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imager optimized for environmental characterization of the coastal zone.
- HREP-HICO demonstrates the retrieval of coastal ocean depth, chlorophyll content, sea floor composition and water visibility, which are vital for rapid and safe maneuvers in coastal environments.
- HREP-HICO provides hyperspectral imagery of coastal environments to the scientific community to aid the development and validation of new coastal products.
The HICO and RAIDS Experiment Payload (HREP) consists of two instruments, the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) and the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS). The objective of HICO and RAIDS Experiment Payload - Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HREP-HICO) is to launch and operate a rapid-development, cost-constrained visible and near-infrared (VNIR) Maritime Hyperspectral Imaging (MHSI) system, to demonstrate the detection, identification and quantification of littoral (coast of an ocean or sea) and terrestrial geophysical features. The instrumentation monitors wavelengths from the visible to the near-infrared (VNIR) with a ground spatial resolution of about 95 m2 per pixel. HREP-HICO validates the performance of MHSI technology in space and demonstrates its effectiveness in meeting Department of Defense (DoD) requirements. HREP-HICO provides an initial data stream to introduce new Department of Defense (DoD) users to MHSI data products and develop data dissemination channels. Hyperspectral image data from HREP-HICO also has significant application in the civil remote sensing community. Extensive experience with airborne hyperspectral image data has demonstrated its utility for land use and land cover, vegetation type, vegetation stress and health, and crop yield. In the ocean, bathymetry (depth measurement of large bodies of water), bottom type, and water optical properties are of great interest to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and other agencies with marine responsibilities. The detector could also have uses in the determination of the environmental impact of natural and unnatural disasters. These applications are of immediate interest to the United States Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Homeland Security, and Interior, as well as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
HICO is part of a larger experiment called HICO and RAIDS Experiment Payload, or HREP, which combines HICO and the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System. Imagery captured during the experiment’s long duration will provide new data about how sunlight, cloud cover and different viewing angles can affect images taken in low-Earth orbit. Someday, similar observations might be made at Mars or other planetary exploration destinations.
The HICO camera can study the ocean’s depth, shallow sea floor, water visibility and chlorophyll content, which indicates the presence of microscopic species of plankton. Improved understanding of these ocean characteristics is important for the U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps, which may need to move ships quickly in shallow or murky waters. HICO data can also be used to monitor water quality, which could help the Environmental Protection Agency and other civilian researchers studying coastal ecosystems.
HREP-HICO is mounted to the International Space Station (ISS) exterior on JEM-EF at position number six. It requires power provided by the ISS, and uses the ISS for commanding and data downlink. All interaction is via the POIC and no crew interaction is planned other than installation and removal via extravehicular robotics (EVR).
HREP-HICO is launched to the ISS as a part of the HTV-1 mission. EVR mounts HREP-HICO to the JEM-EF and removes it for disposal on a later HTV flight.
HICO has been operating since September 25, 2009, aboard the ISS. Over 1700 pictures were collected from HICO in the first year of operation. These images have been used to characterize a variety of optical conditions of ocean waters, such as chlorophyll concentrations, colored dissolved organic matter concentrations, suspended sediment concentrations, and water depth. Image targets have included the Yellow Sea near South Korea, to determine the depth of shallow mud flats and channels, and the Florida Keys, to demonstrate chlorophyll concentrations, dissolved organic matter and suspended sediment concentrations, water depth and bottom information. In 2010 HICO images were used to observed chlorophyll-a concentrations in the Azov Sea, Russia. Model estimates of chlorophyll-a concentrations derived from HICO images were in close agreement with chlorophyll-a concentration measurements taken from actual samples. This proved HICO’s ability to estimate chlorophyll-a concentrations in turbid waters in real-time. Data from HICO was also used to characterize the oil spill resulting from the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion on April 20, 2010. HICO collected data from targets around the explosion site and in the nearby marshlands of Louisiana and Mississippi. The results from HICO identified uncontaminated water and oil/water mixture, as well as strands of emulsified oil. Results from HICO will be used in the management of both inland and coastal aquatic ecosystems, for planning and executing operations from humanitarian relief to military actions, and for identification of oil spilled from ruptured oil pipes.
Amin R, Lewis D, Gould, Jr. RW, Gould, Jr. RW, Hou W, Lawson A, Ondrusek M, Arnone RB. Assessing the Application of Cloud-Shadow Atmospheric Correction Algorithm on HICO. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 2014 May; 52(2): 2646-2653.
Gao BG, Li R. Spectral calibrations of HICO data using atmospheric bands and radiance adjustment based on HICO and MODIS data comparisons. 2010 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Honolulu, HI; 2010 4260-4263.
Garcia RA, Fearns PR, McKinna LI. Detecting trend and seasonal changes in bathymetry derived from HICO imagery: A case study of Shark Bay, Western Australia. Remote Sensing of Environment. 2014 May; 147: 186-205. DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2014.03.010.
Tufillaro NB, Davis CO, Jones KB. Indicators of plume constituents from HICO. 2010 Ocean Optics, Anchorage, AL; 2010 8 pp.
Davis CO. Hyperspectral imaging of river systems. Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon ; 2010.
Gao BG, Li R, Lucke RL, Davis CO, Bevilacqua RM, Korwan DR, Montes MJ, Bowles JH, Corson MR. Vicarious calibrations of HICO data acquired from the International Space Station. Applied Optics. 2012 May 10; 51(14): 2559-2567. DOI: 10.1364/AO.51.002559. PMID: 22614474.
Lucke RL, Corson MR, McGlothlin NR, Butcher SD, Wood DL, Korwan DR, Li R, Snyder WA, Davis CO, Chen DT. Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean: instrument description and first images. Applied Optics. 2011; 50(11): 1501-1516. DOI: 10.1364/AO.50.001501.
Ryan JP, Davis CO, Tufillaro NB, Kudela RM, Gao BG. Application of the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean to Phytoplankton Ecology Studies in Monterey Bay, CA, USA. Remote Sensing. 2014 January 27; 6(2): 1007-1025. DOI: 10.3390/rs6021007.
Mishra DR, Schaeffer BA, Schaeffer BA, Keith DJ. Performance evaluation of normalized difference chlorophyll index in northern Gulf of Mexico estuaries using the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean. GIScience and Remote Sensing. 2014 April 3; 51(2): 175-198. DOI: 10.1080/15481603.2014.895581.
Wright R, Deloatch J, Osgood S, Yuan J. The spectral reflectance of ship wakes between 400 and 900 nanometers. 2012 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), Munich, Germany; 2012 July 22-27 4186-4189.
Amin R, Gould, Jr. RW, Gould, Jr. RW, Hou W, Arnone RB, Lee Z, Lee Z. Optical algorithm for cloud shadow detection over water. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 2013 February; 51(2): 732-741. DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2012.2204267.
Davis CO, Arnone RB, Gould, Jr. RW, Gould, Jr. RW, Corson MR, Montes MJ. Data Processing and First Products from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) on the International Space Station. Oceans from Space Symposium, Venice, Italy; 2010 Apr 26 - 30 73-74.
Keith DJ, Schaeffer BA, Schaeffer BA, Lunetta RS, Gould, Jr. RW, Gould, Jr. RW, Rocha K, Cobb DJ. Remote sensing of selected water-quality indicators with the hyperspectral imager for the coastal ocean (HICO) sensor. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 2014 May 3; 35(9): 2927-2962. DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2014.894663.
Moses WJ, Gitelson AA, Berdnikov S, Bowles JH, Povazhnyi V, Saprygin V, Wagner EJ, Patterson KW. HICO-based NIR-Red models for estimating chlorophyll-a concentration in productive coastal waters. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters. 2014 June; 11(6): 1111-1115. DOI: 10.1109/LGRS.2013.2287458.
Gitelson AA, Gao BG, Li R, Berdnikov S, Saprygin V. Estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in productive turbid waters using a Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean—the Azov Sea case study. Environmental Research Letters. 2011 Jun 30; 6: 6 pp. DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/6/2/024023.
Cho HJ, Ogashawara I, Mishra DR, White J, Kamerosky A, Morris L, Clarke C, Simpson A, Banisakher D. Evaluating Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) data for seagrass mapping in Indian River Lagoon, FL. GIScience and Remote Sensing. 2014 April 3; 51(2): 120-138. DOI: 10.1080/15481603.2014.895577.
Lucke RL, Corson MR, McGlothlin NR, Butcher SD, Wood DL. The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO): fast build for the ISS. Remote Sensing System Engineering III, San Diego, California; 2010 78130D.
Xing Q, Lou M, Yu D, Meng R, Shi P, Braga F, Zaggia L, Tosi L. Features of turbid waters from Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO): Preliminary results at the Yellow River Delta and the Bohai Sea. 2012 4th Workshop on Hyperspectral Image and Signal Processing (WHISPERS), Shanghai, China; 2012 June 4-7 1-4.
Szekielda KH. Hyperspectral observations of internal waves. International Journal of Geology, Earth & Environmental Sciences. 2012 January-April; 2(1): 79-82.
Li R, Lucke RL, Korwan DR, Gao BG. A technique for removing second-order light effects from hyperspectral imaging data. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 2012 March; 50(3): 824-830. DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2011.2163161.
Braga F, Giardino C, Bassani C, Matta E, Candiani G, Strombeck N, Adamo M, Bresciani M. Assessing water quality in the northern Adriatic Sea from HICO™ data. Remote Sensing Letters. 2013 October; 4(10): 1028-1037. DOI: 10.1080/2150704X.2013.830203.
Corson MR, Lucke RL, Davis CO, Bowles JH, Chen DT, Gao BG, Korwan DR, Miller WD, Snyder WA. The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO™) environmental littoral imaging from the International Space Station . 2010 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Honolulu, HI; 2010 Jul 25 - 30 3752 - 3755.
Chen W, Mied R, Gao BG, Wagner EJ. Surface velocities from multiple-tracer image sequences. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters. 2012 July; 9(4): 769-773. DOI: 10.1109/LGRS.2011.2181328.
Szekielda KH, Moses WJ, Bowles JH, Corson MR, Wagner EJ, Li R. Spatial distribution patterns of chlorophyll-a and suspended matter in the Yangtze Estuary and the Hangzhou Bay as observed with the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO). International Journal of Geology, Earth & Environmental Sciences. 2013 May-August; 3(2): 141-152.
Li R, Lucke RL, Corson MR, Korwan DR, Gao BG. Correction of second order light for the HICOTM sensor onboard the International Space Station. 2010 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Honolulu, HI; 2010 2303-2306.
Corson MR, Davis CO. A new view of coastal oceans from the space station. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union. 2011 May 10; 92(19): 161-162. DOI: 10.1029/2011EO190001.
Korwan DR, Lucke RL, Corson MR, Bowles JH, Gao BG, Li R, Montes MJ, Snyder WA, McGlothlin NR, Butcher SD, Wood DL, Davis CO, Miller WD. The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) - design and early results . 2nd Workshop on Hyperspectral Image and Signal Processing: Evolution in Remote Sensing (Reykjavik, Iceland); 2010 Jun 14 - 16 1-4.
Ground Based Results Publications
Gao BG, Li R. Removal of Thin Cirrus Scattering Effects for Remote Sensing of Ocean Color From Space. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters. 2012; 9(5): 972-976. DOI: 10.1109/LGRS.2012.2187876.
Gillis DB, Bowles JH, Moses WJ. Improving the retrieval of water inherent optical properties in noisy hyperspectral data through statistical modeling. Optics Express. 2013 September 9; 21(18): 21306. DOI: 10.1364/OE.21.021306.
Chen W, Lucke RL. Out-of-Band Correction for Multispectral Remote Sensing. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 2013 April; 51(4): 2476-2483. DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2012.2208975.
Amin R, Gould, Jr. RW, Gould, Jr. RW, Hou W, Lee Z, Lee Z, Arnone RB. Automated detection and removal of cloud shadows on HICO images. Proceedings of SPIE 8030, Ocean Sensing and Monitoring III; 2011 05/13/2011 803004-803004-10.
Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean
The HREP-HICO imager on its rotating spindle. Image courtesy of the Naval Research Laboratory.
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NASA Image: Image through the JEM window during Expedition 33 showing the side of the HREP hardware mounted at EFU slot 6.
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A HICO image taken over the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay on Wednesday, Oct. 7, 2009. The image is about 43 km wide and 190 km long. The center of the image is at 37° 20' N, 76° 10' W and its orientation is from NW at top to SE at bottom. Image courtesy of NASA.
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NASA Image: S129E009592 - View of the Hyperspectral Imager for Coastal Oceans (HICO) and Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) Experiment Payload (HREP) installed on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility and the port side Solar Array Wings. Photo taken from a JEM Pressurized Module window.
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These images were taken (February 2011) from the ISS experiment Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO). Data from HICO is used to find bathymetry and water optical properties. Image courtesy of NASA.
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These images were taken from the ISS experiment Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO). Data from HICO is used to find bathymetry and water optical properties. Image courtesy of NASA.
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These images were taken (December 2010) from the ISS experiment Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO). Data from HICO is used to find bathymetry and water optical properties. Images courtesy of NASA.
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