Information PendingPrincipal Investigator(s)
Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos)Sponsoring Organization
Information PendingResearch Benefits
Information PendingISS Expedition Duration:
March 2010 - March 2011Expeditions Assigned
23/24,25/26Previous ISS Missions
Study of radiation environmemnt dynamics along the ISS RS flight path and in ISS compartments, and dose accumulation in antroph-amorphous phantom, located inside and outside ISS.
Information PendingEarth Applications
Information PendingOperational Protocols
The Matroshka-R experiments, using a spherical phantom made from tissue-simulating materials, was flown to the ISS in 2004 to study the radiation field, mainly inside the Russian segment of the ISS, over several expeditions (13-16, 19-21 and beyond) in order to estimate the critical organ radiation dose for a crewmember in the cabin. Results demonstrate that this is possible and corresponding effective dose can be obtained based on radiation distribution along and within a spherical phantom (Kireeva et al. 2007).
High energy neutrons (uncharged subatomic particles) can contribute up to 30% of the total radiation dose equivalent inside the ISS (Lewis et al. 2010). Over expeditions 13, 14, and 15, seven experimental sessions were carried out, two to three sessions each, with the phantom positioned at two different locations: the service module (SM) and the docking module (DM). Space bubble detectors (SBDs) were placed inside, on the surface of the phantom, and at various locations throughout the SM and DM to establish the relationship between neutron dose rate measured externally to the body and the dose received internally. Average recorded external dose rate of ~76 ?Sv (microsievert)/day on the outer wall compared to ~100 ?Sv/day for the living area of the SM crew cabin were not significantly different. Internal dose equivalent data at 105?165 mm (critical-organ dose depth) showed that the phantom?s averaged internal dose in the DM location was about the same as its external dose (~100 ?Sv/day) and are in good agreement with similar experiments performed on the ISS. This means that the dose read by a dosimeter worn on the crewmember?s body in space is not an overestimate of the real neutron dose received by critical organs (Machrafi et al. 2009).
Dosimetry experiments for low linear energy particles (LETs) such as photons, high-energy protons, etc., were performed with Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLDs) and Plastic Nuclear Track Detectors (PNTDs) attached to the surface and also inserted 10 cm deep into the spherical phantom. Data showed absorbed dose were higher at the site closer to the outer wall of the spacecraft than the site facing the inside. The average absorbed dose inside the phantom is ~30% lower than on the surface. Total absorbed dose in the SM is also ~30% lower (dose equivalent is about 20% lower) than in the DM. Incidentally, radiation doses in the Columbus Module were about 40% lower than in the SM. Radiation dose at the same location inside the ISS increased by 40-70% from 2007 to 2009 due to the solar cycle minimum when galactic cosmic rays (GCR) intensity increases. The average altitude of the ISS during the experimental phase in 2009 was ~10 kilometers higher than 2007, which probably contributed to the radiation increase. Koliskova et al. (2012) calculated from simulations that a difference in ISS altitude of ± 10 kilometers can cause a ± 15% corresponding difference in the absorbed dose in the phantom. Generally, one can say that in the DM, there is higher contribution of particles with lower LET, whereas, in the more damaging high-LET region there are practically no differences between the two modules. The data accumulated in these studies bring additional information on the individual monitoring of crewmembers and help to estimate their radiation risk (Ambro?ová et al. 2011, Semkova et al. 2010).
Non-uniform distribution of structure elements and equipment influences radiation measurements and introduces deviations to maximum (Dmax) and minimum (Dmin) doses at given depths on the Matroshka-R phantom. This is especially noticeable for low depth layers where contribution of the low-energy radiation component is higher. For organs with self-shielding less than 5 g/cm2 (skin, eye lens, testis), where the low-energy soft ionizing radiation contribution is significant, minimum and maximum integral absorbed dose (IAD), or the total amount absorbed over time, can deviate as much as ±50%. Nevertheless, it is adequate to use the corresponding average values to calculating dose in these organs as well as for deeper organs with self-shielding greater than 5 g/cm2. Thus, the doses of separate critical organs can be calculated using only the mean values of two dose measurements on the phantom surface, namely Dmax and Dmin, decreasing thereby essentially labor input of the experiment (Kartsev et al. 2009).
Jadrnícková et al. (2009, 2010) reported the absorbed dose and dose equivalent can differ as much as twice, and total dose rate values vary, depending on detectors position (shielding thickness), between 263 and 393 ?Gy/day, and dose equivalent rates of between 423 and 675 ?Sv/day, for radiation quality factor (Q) of 1.4 ? 1.9. It should be noted that the term "quality factor" is the factor which the absorbed dose rate in Rad or Gray, is multiplied by to obtain the biological tissue damage quantity in Rem or Sievert. For example, X-rays, gamma rays, and Beta particles (high energy electrons or positrons) have a value of 1 for Q, and Alpha particle (a Helium nucleus) has a value of 20, meaning the alpha particle is 20 times more effective in producing a destructive effect than x-rays or gamma rays.
A follow-on study, using a Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) dosimetry system with Matroshka-R, measured surface and deep organ doses from January 2006 to April 2007. Internal phantom measurements, which reflect the dose to the blood-forming organs (BFO), resulted in a maximum average dose rate which were less than 7% of the recommended 30-day limit and less than 44% of the annual limit of 500 mSv for a 2.6 space radiation quality factor. Surface-phantom measurements, representing dose to the eye and skin, had a higher average rate giving an effective annual dose of 328 mSv, which is 16% of the eye recommended annual limit of 2 Sv and 11% of the skin limit of 3 Sv. During a solar flare in December 2006, the monthly average daily dose rate increased about 60%, resulting in a 30-day effective does of 37 mSv, still quite lower than accepted limits. For the duration of the measurements, the ISS crew doses were well within the safe recommended limits and were comparable to the range of doses measured by independent radiation detectors in the ISS (Hallil et al. 2010).
On 28 June, 2007 the experiment Liulin-5 (an active ionizing particle telescope with three silicon detectors) began investigation of the radiation distribution with Matroshka-R. The energy deposition, LET ranges, particle flux (flow), and absorbed doses of electrons, protons, and heavy ions were simultaneously monitored at three depths along the radius of the spherical phantom. Doses and fluxes measured are most intense in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) area where the radiation belt comes closest to the Earth's surface and strongly depend on detector positions within the phantom. The average absorbed daily dose rates obtained from July 2007 to 2009 at BFO depth are between 180 ? 220 ?Gy/day and reach as high as 800 ?Gy/hour at the centre of the SAA. At high geographic latitudes the dose rate from GCR is up to 20 ?Gy/hour and the lowest dose rates of about 0.3 ?Gy/hour are recorded in equatorial and low-latitude regions outside the SAA. In the SAA the doses measured at 40 mm from the surface are about 3 times higher than close to the centre of the phantom; outside the SAA the doses from GCR are practically the same at different depths. The typical depth-dose distribution shows a decrease by a factor of 1.6-1.8 of the absorbed doses at 165 mm depth compared to the doses at 40 mm depth in the phantom. At 165 mm (near the centre of the phantom) where the deeper organs would be, the GCRs contribute about 60% of the total absorbed dose. At 40 mm depth the GCRs contribute at least 70% of the total dose equivalent and the rest is from trapped protons. Data obtained with Liulin-5 during 2007?2009 agree well with other Matroshka-R projects and can be used for validation of radiation environment models of the ISS (Semkova et al. 2003, 2008, 2012).
Lewis BJ, Smith MB, Ing H, Andrews HR, Machrafi R, Tomi L, Matthews TJ, Veloce L, Chernykh I, Khoshooniy N, Shurshakov VA. Review of Bubble Detector Response Characteristics and Results from Space. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 2011; 150(1): 1-21. DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncr358. PMID: 21890528.
Smith MB, Akatov YA, Andrews HR, Arkhangelsky VV, Chernykh I, Ing H, Khoshooniy N, Lewis BJ, Machrafi R, Nikolaev I, Romanenko RY, Shurshakov VA, Thirsk RB, Tomi L. Measurments of the Neutron Dose and Energy Spectrum on the International Space Station During Expeditions ISS-16 to ISS-21. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 2013; 153(4): 509-533. DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncs129. PMID: 22826353.
Hallil A, Brown M, Akatov YA, Arkhangelsky VV, Chernykh I, Mitrikas V, Tomi L, Kartsev IS, Lyagushin V, Petrov VP, Shurshakov VA. MOSFET dosimetry mission inside the ISS as part of the Matroshka-R experiment. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 2010 Nov; 138(4): 295-309. DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncp265.
Semkova J, Koleva R, Todorova G, Kanchev N, Chernykh I, Akatov YA, Redko V, Petrov VP, Shurshakov VA, Benghin V. Investigation of Dose and Flux Dynamics in the Liulin-5 Dosimeter of the Tissue-equivalent Phantom Onboard the Russian Segment of the International Space Station. Advances in Space Research. 2003; 31(5): 1383-1388. DOI: 10.1016/S0273-1177(02)00952-3.
Jadrnickova I, Brabcova K, Koliskova (Mrazova) Z, Spurny F, Kartsev IS, Tolochek RV, Shurshakov VA. Dose Characteristics and LET Spectra on and Inside the Spherical Phantom Onboard of ISS. Radiation Measurements. 2010; 45(10): 1536-1540. DOI: 10.1016/j.radmeas.2010.07.002.
Koliskova (Mrazova) Z, Sihver L, Ambrozova I, Sato T, Spurny F, Shurshakov VA. Simulations of Absorbed Dose on the Phantom Surface of MATROSHKA-R Experiment at the ISS. Advances in Space Research. 2011; 49(2): 230-236. DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2011.09.018.
Semkova J, Koleva R, Maltchev S, Bankov N, Chernykh I, Drobyshev S, Nikolaev I, Petrov VP, Shurshakov VA, Benghin V. Depth Dose Measurements with the Liulin-5 Experiment Inside the Spherical Phantom of the MATROSHKA-R Project Onboard the International Space Station. Advances in Space Research. 2012 Feb; 49(3): 471-478. DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2011.10.005.
Ambrozova I, Brabcova K, Spurny F, Kartsev IS, Tolochek RV, Shurshakov VA. Monitoring on board spacecraft by means of passive detectors. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 2011; 144(1-4): 605-610. DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncq305.
Semkova J, Koleva R, Maltchev S, Kanchev N, Chernykh I, Yarmanova E, Bankov N, Lyagushin V, Goranova M, Petrov VP, Shurshakov VA, Benghin V. Radiation Measurements Inside a Human Phantom Aboard the International Space Station Using Liulin-5 Charged Particle Telescope. Advances in Space Research. 2010; 45(7): 858-865. DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2009.08.027.
Machrafi R, Garrow K, Ing H, Smith MB, Andrews HR, Akatov YA, Arkhangelsky VV, Chernykh I, Mitrikas V, Tomi L, Kartsev IS, Lyagushin V, Petrov VP, Shurshakov VA. Neutron Dose Study with Bubble Detectors Aboard the International Space Station as Part of the Matroshka-R Experiment. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 2009; 133(4): 200-207. DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncp039.
Kartsev IS, Tolochek RV, Akatov YA, Shurshakov VA. Calculation of Radiation Doses in Cosmonaut's Body in Long-Term Flight Onboard the ISS Using the Data Obtained in Spherical Phantom. Fundamental Space Research, Sunny Beach, Bulgaria; 2009 80-83.
Jadrnickova I, Tateyama R, Yasuda N, Kawashima H, Kurano M, Uchihori Y, Kitamura H, Akatov YA, Kobayashi I, Ohguchi H, Koguchi Y, Spurny F, Shurshakov VA. Variation of Absorbed Doses Onboard of ISS Russian Service Module as Measured with Passive Detectors. Radiation Measurements. 2009; 44: 901-904. DOI: 10.1016/j.radmeas.2009.10.075.
Kireeva SA, Kolomensky AV, Petrov VP, Benghin V. Phantom--dosimeter for Estimating Effective Dose Onboard International Space Station. Acta Astronautica. 2007 Feb-Apr; 60(4-7): 547-553. DOI: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.09.019.
Semkova J, Koleva R, Maltchev S, Chernykh I, Yarmanova E, Bankov N, Lyagushin V, Roslyakov Y, Petrov VP, Shurshakov VA, Benghin V. Cosmic Radiation Dose Rate, Flux, LET Spectrum and Quality Factor Obtained with Liulin-5 Experiment Aboard the International Space Station. Fundamental Space Research, Sunny Beach, Bulgaria; 2008
Semkova J, Koleva R, Todorova G, Kanchev N, Petrov VP, Shurshakov VA, Tchhernykh I, Kireeva SA. Instrumentation for investigation of the depth-dose distribution by the Liulin-5 instrument of a human phantom on the Russian segment of ISS for estimation of the radiation risk during long term space flights. Advances in Space Research. 2004; 34(6): 1297-1301. DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2003.10.047.