Biological Effects of Space Radiation and Microgravity on Mammalian Cells (NeuroRad) - 12.03.13
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Biological Effects of Space Radiation and Microgravity on Mammalian Cells (NeuroRad) studies the effects of space radiation on the human neuroblastoma cell (nerve cell containing a tumor) line in microgravity.
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Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)Sponsoring Organization
Information PendingResearch Benefits
Information PendingISS Expedition Duration
March 2010 - September 2010Expeditions Assigned
23/24Previous ISS Missions
NeuroRad was first operated on ISS Expedition 19/20.
- NeuroRad will investigate the biological effects of space radiation on mammalian nerve cells using SK-N-SH (human neuroblastoma cell line).
- NeuroRad will evaluate the risk factors of long-term space flight by investigating the ability to recover from radiation damage aquired in microgravity. NeuroRad will also evaluate the effects of radiation accumulation as a result of long-term space flight missions.
- NeuroRad will focus on changes in the mitochondria-related gene expression, since the mitochondria is well known for having a crucial role in apotosis (programmed cell death).
- After recovery, the effects of radiation in microgravity will be comprehensively analyzed using the following techniques: nuclear DNA microaray, western blotting, and mutation assays.
Information PendingEarth Applications
Radiation effects are critical for biological creatures. The data collected during this investigation may lead a greater understanding of how the radiation defense system is affected by different factors from space radiation and microgravity environment. The data could be applied to develop new treatments and preventative measures for the effects of radiation, and to further investigate the effects of human long-duration stays in space.
Information PendingOperational Protocols
Majima HJ, Indo HP, Tomita K, Iwashita Y, Suzuki H, Masuda D, Shimazu T, Tanigaki F, Umemura S, Yano S, Fukui K, Higashibata A, Yamazaki TQ, Kameyama M, Suenaga S, Sato T, Yen H, Gusev OA, Okuda T, Matsui H, Ozawa T, Ishioka N. Bio-Assessment of RISK in Long-Term Manned Space Exploration-Cell Death Factors in Space Radiation and/or Microgravity: A Review-. Biological Sciences in Space. 2009; 23(2): 43-53.
Majima HJ, Indo HP, Suenaga S, Matsui H, Yen H, Ozawa T. Mitochondria as Possible Pharmaceutical Targets for the Effects of Vitamin E and its Homologues in Oxidative Stress-Related Diseases.Current Pharmaceutical Design. 2011 July 1; 17(21): 2190-2195. DOI: 10.2174/138161211796957490. PMID: 21774784.
Indo HP, Nakanishi I, Ohkubo K, Yen H, Nyui M, Manda S, Matsumoto K, Fukuhara K, Anzai K, Ikota N, Matsui H, Minamiyama Y, Nakajima A, Ichikawa H, Fukuzumi S, Ozawa T, Mukai C, Majima HJ. Comparison of in vivo and in vitro antioxidative parameters for eleven food factors.RSC Advances. 2013; 3(14): 4535. DOI: 10.1039/c3ra22686g.
Indo HP, Inanami O, Koumura T, Suenaga S, Yen H, Kakinuma S, Matsumoto K, Nakanishi I, St Clair W, St Clair DK, Matsui H, Cornette R, Gusev OA, Okuda T, Nakagawa Y, Ozawa T, Majima HJ. Roles of mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species on X-ray-induced apoptosis in a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HLE.Free Radical Research. 2012 August; 46(8): 1029-1043. DOI: 10.3109/10715762.2012.698012. PMID: 22656864.
Indo HP, Davidson M, Yen H, Suenaga S, Tomita K, Nishii T, Higuchi M, Koga K, Ozawa T, Majima HJ. Evidence of ROS generation by mitochondria in cells with impaired electron transport chain and mitochondrial DNA damage.Mitochondrion. 2007 February; 7(1-2): 106-118. DOI: 10.1016/j.mito.2006.11.026. PMID: 17307400.
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