Gravity Related Genes in Arabidopsis - A (Genara-A) - 09.17.14

Overview | Description | Applications | Operations | Results | Publications | Imagery
ISS Science for Everyone

Science Objectives for Everyone
Gravity Related Genes in Arabidopsis - A (Genara-A) seeks to provide an understanding of microgravity induced altered molecular activities which will help to find plant systems that compensate the negative impact on plant growth in space.

Science Results for Everyone

Plants get stressed out in space. This investigation of how microgravity alters molecular activities in plants helps identify those plants which can compensate for the negative effect of space on growth. Membrane proteins were extracted from seedlings grown in space, on a 1-G reference centrifuge, and on the ground. Among 1,484 proteins identified and quantified, 80 were significantly more abundant in the seedlings grown in microgravity in space. Proteins associated with metabolism and movement of growth hormones were depleted by microgravity, while those associated with stress responses, defense, and metabolism were more abundant. This indicates that plants perceive microgravity as a stressful environment.



The following content was provided by Eugenie Carnero-Diaz, Ph.D., and is maintained in a database by the ISS Program Science Office.
Information provided courtesy of the Erasmus Experiment Archive.

Experiment Details

OpNom

Principal Investigator(s)

  • Eugenie Carnero-Diaz, Ph.D., Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France

  • Co-Investigator(s)/Collaborator(s)
  • Ana I. Manzano, Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, Madrid, Spain
  • Raúl Herranz, Ph.D., Centro de Investigaciones Bioligicas, Madrid, Spain
  • R. Ranjeva, University Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France
  • Annick Graziana, University Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France
  • A. Goday, Centro d'Investigacio I Desenvolupament, Barcelona, Spain
  • M. Pages, Centro d'Investigacio I Desenvolupament, Barcelona, Spain
  • Gerald Perbal, University Pierre-et-Marie Curie, Paris, France
  • Francisco-Javier Medina, Centro de Investigaciones Bioligicas, Madrid, Spain
  • Elodie Boucheron-Dubuisson, Ph.D., Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France
  • Brigitte Eche, Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France

  • Developer(s)
    EADS Astrium, Friedrichshafen, , Germany

    Sponsoring Space Agency
    European Space Agency (ESA)

    Sponsoring Organization
    Information Pending

    Research Benefits
    Information Pending

    ISS Expedition Duration
    March 2010 - March 2011

    Expeditions Assigned
    23/24,25/26

    Previous ISS Missions
    Genara-A is scheduled for its first operations on ISS Increment 23/24.

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    Experiment Description

    Research Overview

    • Gravity Related Genes in Arabidopsis - A (Genara-A) will address the existence of gravity regulated genes, which affect the mechanism of gravisensing and the redistribution of plant growth hormones.


    • For this purpose the growth of Arabidopsis shall be followed by optical observation of 1g reference samples and samples grown under microgravity.


    • Genara-A will provide an understanding of microgravity induced altered molecular activities which will help to find plant systems that compensate the negative impact on plant growth in space, an aspect of special importance for the application of plant based systems in life support systems or as food source for long-duration space flights beyond low Earth orbit.

    Description
    The existence of gravity regulated genes, whose expression depends (at least) upon the mechanism of gravisensing and the redistribution of hormones, shall be addressed properly in this experiment. In transgenic Arabidopsis plants, several biomonitors will report the distribution of IAA (plant hormone auxin [Indole-3-Acetic Acid]) and ABA (plant hormone [Abscisic Acid]) at the tissue level in microgravity or in the 1-g centrifuge.

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    Applications

    Space Applications
    Information Pending

    Earth Applications
    Information Pending

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    Operations

    Operational Requirements
    Information Pending

    Operational Protocols
    Arabidopsis thalianaseedlings are launched dry state inside cultivation chambers (CCs). An impregnated filter paper below the seeds contains required nutrients for germination and growth, so that germination can be started by hydration with distilled water. A total of ninety-six CCs are flown.

    For processing, the samples are provided with artificial air with a composition of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water according to the investigator specifications at a temperature of 22 degrees Celsius. The growth of the Arabidopsis is observed and recorded by the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) provided video observation and recording subsystems.

    Following processing the CCs are removed from the ECs and either frozen at a temperature of -80 degrees Celsius in MELFI, and returned to ground in this condition in a suitable cold storage or filled with GUS-Assay and incubated in a incubator at a temperature of 37 degrees Celsius for 12 hours, first, and only afterwards frozen at -80 degrees C in MELFI. Currently GUS treatment is planned for 16 CCs.

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    Results/More Information

     

    12-day-old seedlings were grown either in space, in the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) under microgravity or on a 1g reference centrifuge, or on the ground. Proteins associated with membranes were selectively extracted from microsomes and identified and quantified through LC-MS-MS using a label-free method, i.e. a method in mass spectrometry that aims to determine the relative amount of proteins in biological samples. Among the 1484 proteins identified and quantified in the 3 conditions mentioned above, 80 membrane-associated proteins were significantly more abundant in seedlings grown under microgravity in space than under 1g and 69 were less abundant. Clustering of these proteins according to their predicted function indicates that proteins associated with auxin metabolism and trafficking were depleted in the microsomal fraction in microgravity space conditions, whereas proteins associated with stress responses, defence and metabolism were more abundant in microgravity than under 1g indicating that microgravity is perceived by plants as a stressful environment. These results clearly indicate that a global membrane proteomics approach can give a snapshot of the cell status and its signaling activity at a given time in response to microgravity and highlight the major processes affected.

     

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    Results Publications

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    Ground Based Results Publications

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    ISS Patents

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    Related Publications

      Herranz R, Medina F.  Role of gene and pathways redundancy in plant and animal unique transcriptomic states under altered gravity. 2012 Life in Space for Life on Earth Symposium, Aberdeen, United Kingdom; 2012 June 18-22

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    Related Websites
    The information on this page is provided courtesy of the ESA Erasmus Experiment Archive.
    The Arabidopsis Information Resource

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    Imagery