Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) - 06.01.16

Overview | Description | Applications | Operations | Results | Publications | Imagery

ISS Science for Everyone

Science Objectives for Everyone
The Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) investigation is designed to continuously monitor, through a systematic survey, X-ray sources and variabilities as the International Space Station (ISS) orbits Earth. Located at Equipment Exchange Unit (EER) site 1 on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility (JEF), MAXI is comprised of a couple highly sensitive X-ray detectors, the Gas Slit Camera (GSC) and the Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC). Besides the goal of performing a complete sky survey, this research helps to address fundamental astrophysics questions and allows researchers to better understand the current state and evolution of our Universe.
Science Results for Everyone
Better than Superman? An X-ray monitor on the space station examined the entire sky for galactic transient phenomena and discovered new black hole candidates; reported more than 20 binary X-ray pulsar outbursts; detected X-ray flares from 12 stars in its first two years, providing a unified picture for star flaring; and observed for the first time the instant that a massive black hole swallowed a star. The investigation released a catalog for high Galactic-latitude sky sources and revealed the existence of a hypernova remnant estimated to be 3 million years old, believed to be the first in our galaxy.

The following content was provided by Masaru Matsuoka, Ph.D., and is maintained in a database by the ISS Program Science Office.
Information provided courtesy of the Japan Aerospace and Exploration Agency (JAXA).
Experiment Details

OpNom: MAXI

Principal Investigator(s)
Masaru Matsuoka, Ph.D., Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Saitama, Japan

Co-Investigator(s)/Collaborator(s)
Atsumasa Yoshida, Ph.D., Aoyama Gakuin University, Kanagawa, Japan
Hiroshi Tsunemi, Ph.D., Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
Nobuyuki Kawai, Ph.D., Tokyo Institute of Technology and Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Tokyo, Japan
Shiro Ueno, JAXA, Japan
Tatehiro Mihara, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Saitama, Japan
Hitoshi Negoro, Ph.D, Nihon University, Tokyo, Japan
Yoshihiro Ueda, Ph.D., Kyoto University, Kyota, Japan
Hiroshi Tomida, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Tsukuba, Japan
Satoshi Nakahira, Aoyama Gakuin University, Kanagawa, Japan
Masashi Kimura, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
Maki Ishikawa, SOKENDAI, Japan
Yujin E. Nakagawa, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Saitama, Japan
Ken Ebisawa, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Kanagawa, Japan
Mutsumi Sugisaki, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Japan
Motoko Serino, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Saitama, Japan
Mikio Morii, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan
Doyuki Yamamoto, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Japan
Jyuri Sugimoto, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Japan
Toshihiro Takagi, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Japan
Eibun Yoshikawa, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Japan
Takuya Onodera, Nihon University, Japan
Shogun Sasaki, Osaka University, Japan
Hirotaka Uchida, Osaka University, Japan
Kosuke Fukushima, Nihon University, Japan
Ryuichi Usui, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan
Kazuhito Ishikawa, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
Kenshun Yoshii, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
Yutaro Tachibana, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
Kazuhiko Suzuki, Nihon University, Japan
Motoki Nakajima, Nihon University, Chiba, Japan
Megumi Shidatsu, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
Taiki Kawamuro, Kyoto University, Japan
Takaiku Hori, Kyoto University, Japan
Takanori Sakamoto, Aoyama Gakuin University, Japan
Yuki Nakano, Aoyama Gakuin University, Japan
Yuta Kawakubo, Aoyama Gakuin University, Japan
Hikaru Otsuki, Aoyama Gakuin University, Japan
Makoto Yamauchi, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan
Yuji Ogawa, Miyazaki University, Japan
Hisamiki Yamada, Miyazaki University, Japan
Koshiro Yoshidome, Miyazaki University, Japan
Yoshitaka Moroka, Miyazaki University, Japan
Yoko Tsuboi, Chuo University, Tokyo, Japan
Masaya Higa, Chuo University, Japan
Atsushi Kawagoe, Chuo University, Japan
Kazuki Yamaoka, Nagoya University, Japan

Developer(s)
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Tsukuba, Japan

Sponsoring Space Agency
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)

Sponsoring Organization
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency

Research Benefits
Information Pending

ISS Expedition Duration 1
April 2009 - March 2016; March 2016 - September 2017

Expeditions Assigned
19/20,21/22,23/24,25/26,27/28,29/30,31/32,33/34,35/36,37/38,39/40,41/42,43/44,45/46,47/48,49/50,51/52

Previous Missions
RXTE/ASM

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Experiment Description

Research Overview

  • The long-term time variability and random transient events are difficult to study with pointing telescopes, and require dedicated all sky mission. To research exotic phenomena systematically, the latest X-ray astronomical catalog is needed.
  • MAXI continues to detect X-ray transient phenomena and rapidly inform the world of its position and brightness. The observation results about 1000 X-ray sources are provided in every day. MAXI also provides the latest X-ray catalog.
  • MAXI will transmit an alert through the Internet when it detects any significant transient event, Other observatories or satellites can turn their telescopes toward the source to make follow-up observations.

Description
Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) is an X-ray all-sky monitor, to scan almost the entire sky once every 96 minutes for a mission life of more than two years. MAXI on ISS has been observing the X-ray sky from Aug 2009. The detection sensitivity will be about 20 mCrab(5 sigma level) for one-orbit MAXI operation, 2–3 mCrab for one day, and 1 mCrab for one week, reaching a source confusion limit of 0.2 mCrab in one-year observation. The systematic survey of the X-ray variabilities to study the nature of active celestial objects is an important objective of MAXI. So far, MAXI has detected many X-ray transient phenomena and rapidly informed the world of its sky positions and X-ray brightness. In principle. The astronomical data obtained with MAXI is now available at the MAXI web site.

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Applications

Space Applications

Many X-ray sources are transients that escape detection because most telescopes have narrow fields of view. MAXI’s wide view and rapid notifications, up to 1,000 a day, help alert other observatories so they can capture data about these sources in a  broad range of spectra.
 

Earth Applications
Astronomical data from MAXI, and from facilities alerted by MAXI, help scientists in studying the origins of matter and energy in the universe.

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Operations

Operational Requirements and Protocols
Since the continuous monitoring of the X-ray sky is important, MAXI is conducting the observation in 24x7. Continuous power and thermal control is required. To catch the transient phenomenon quickly, real time data transfer important. It is also important to minimize the data loss in order to make a complete sky survey.
The X-ray camera of MAXI must stop the observation during the sun is in the field of view or ISS is in the dense cosmic-particle regions (e.g. South Atlantic anomaly). It is necessary to properly control the X-ray cameras. It is important to predict the attitude and position of ISS precisely. The data broadcasted on ISS is also utilized for the camera control.

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Decadal Survey Recommendations

Information Pending

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Results/More Information

Black Hole Candidates
MAXI has a distinctive capability of monitoring the outbursts of black hole binaries from beginning to end. MAXI is particularly useful in discovering and monitoring the very early phase of outbursts. MAXI discovered 5 new black hole candidates, named MAXI J1659−152 (Negoro 2010), MAXI J1543−564 (Negoro 2011a), MAXI J1836−194 (Negoro 2011b), MAXI J1305−704 (Sato 2012), and MAXI J1910−057 (Usui 2012). Since the activation of MAXI, half of all new black hole candidates have been discovered by MAXI.

Binary X-ray pulsars
The MAXI team reported more than 20 outbursts. MAXI detected an outburst of GX 304−1 for the first time in the last 30 years and another outburst 10 times bigger in 2010. The latter outburst was quickly followed by a coordinated Suzaku satellite observation, which detected a cyclotron resonance absorption line indicating the strongest magnetic field ever observed. The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Satellite has also been conducting coordinated observations following the MAXI alerts. For example, Swift/XRT discovered X-ray pulsations in MAXI J1409−619 (Kennea 2010).

Stellar flare
The first unbiased survey of X-ray flares in stars and young stellar objects (YSO) is ongoing. MAXI detected 23 flares from 12 stars in the first 2 years, proving that large X-ray flaring is possible and providing a unified picture for star flaring.

Active Galactice Nucleus (AGN) and the tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole
MAXI monitored 3 X-ray flares from the blazer (a class of AGN) Markarian 421, and provided a new insight on the origin of giant flares. MAXI and Swift also observed the instant that a massive black hole swallowed a star for the first time in the world.

MAXI catalog
The MAXI team released a GSC source catalog for high Galactic-latitude sky sources, which shows the member list of AGN in the X-ray sky drastically changed in the last 30 years (due to time variability). The catalog was used to make a reliable luminosity function of AGN in our local universe.

Hypernova Remnant
The MAXI Solid-state Slit Camera (MAX-SSC) revealed the existence of a hypernova remnant, estimated to be 3 million years old and is believed to be the first in our galaxy.

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Results Publications

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Ground Based Results Publications

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ISS Patents

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Related Publications

    Katayama H, Tomida H, Matsuoka M, Tsunemi H, Miyata E, Kamiyama D, Nemes N.  Development of the x-ray CCD cameras for the MAXI mission. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 2005; a541: 350-356. DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2005.01.075.

    Sugizaki M, Mihara T, Serino M, Yamamoto T, Matsuoka M, Kohama M, Tomida H, Ueno S, Kawai N, Morii M, Sugimori K, Nakahira S, Yamaoka K, Yoshida A, Nakajima M, Negoro H, Eguchi S, Isobe N, Ueda Y, Tsunemi H.  In-orbit performance of MAXI Gas Slit Camera (GSC) on ISS. Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 2011 November 25; 63(sp3): s635-s644. DOI: 10.1093/pasj/63.sp3.S635.

    Ueno S, Tomida H, Isobe N, Katayama H, Kawasaki K, Yokota T, Kuramata N, Matsuoka M, Mihara T, Sakurai I, Nakajima M, Kohama M, Tsunemi H, Miyata E, Kawai N, Kataoka J, Serino Y, Yamamoto Y, Yoshida A, Negoro H.  Development status and performance estimation of MAXI. UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems; 2004 October 11 197-208.

    Mihara T, Kawai N, Yoshida A, Sakurai I, Kamae T, Matsuoka M, Shirasaki Y, Sugizaki M, Yuan W, Tanaka I.  Performance of the GSC engineering-counter for MAXI/ISS. X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII; 2002 January 31 173-186.

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Related Websites
The MAXI Experiment
The information on this web page was duplicated from information provided by JAXA. Please visit the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Kibo Experiments to learn more about this payload and others.
MAXI (RIKEN)
MAXI (Japanese)

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Imagery

image Pictured above is the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) that is mounted externally on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) onboard the ISS. (Image provided by JAXA.)
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image The "First Light" all-sky X-ray image obtained with the Gas Slit Camera (GSC) of MAXI over one ISS orbit. Image courtesy of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).
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image NASA Image: S127E009561 - View of MAXI attached to the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility (JEF). Photo was taken during STS-127 / Expedition 20 Joint Operations.
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image On March 28, 2011, NASA's Swift detected intense X-ray flares thought to be caused by a black hole devouring a star. In one model, illustrated here, a sun-like star on an eccentric orbit plunges too close to its galaxy's central black hole. About half of the star's mass feeds an accretion disk around the black hole, which in turn powers a particle jet that beams radiation toward Earth.
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