Astronaut's Energy Requirements for Long-Term Space Flight (Energy) - 02.17.16

Overview | Description | Applications | Operations | Results | Publications | Imagery

ISS Science for Everyone

Science Objectives for Everyone
The Astronaut's Energy Requirements for Long Term Space Fight (Energy) investigation assesses energy requirements of astronauts on long-duration missions. This is important for future planning of longer-duration missions, to the Moon and Mars for example, in order to launch sufficient food supplies (but not too much), which have a positive impact on mission costs and goals.
Science Results for Everyone
Information Pending

The following content was provided by Stephane Blanc, Ph.D., and is maintained in a database by the ISS Program Science Office.
Information provided courtesy of the Erasmus Experiment Archive.
Experiment Details

OpNom: Energy

Principal Investigator(s)
Stephane Blanc, Ph.D., Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Strasbourg, France

Alexandre Zahariev, Centre d'Ecologie et de Physiologie Energetiques, Strasbourg, France
M. Caloin, France

Centre d'Ecologie et Physiologie Energetiques, Strasbourg, France

Sponsoring Space Agency
European Space Agency (ESA)

Sponsoring Organization
Information Pending

Research Benefits
Earth Benefits, Scientific Discovery, Space Exploration

ISS Expedition Duration 1
May 2012 - March 2017

Expeditions Assigned

Previous ISS Missions
ENERGY was first operated on ISS Expedition 31/32.

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Experiment Description

Research Overview

  • With the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) and the related planned long-term human missions beyond low Earth orbit, the interest in nutrition as a countermeasure to the effects of space flight has increased dramatically. A growing body of data suggests a direct relationship between nutrition and the effects of space.
  • The maintenance of energy balance appears critical but difficult during space flight. Clearly the determination of energy requirements is necessary for recommending healthy nutrition in weightlessness.
  • Astronaut's Energy Requirements for Long-Term Space Flight (Energy) measures changes in energy balance after long term spaceflight, adaptations in the components of the total energy expenditure and derive an equation for the energy requirements of astronauts.

Astronaut's Energy Requirements for Long-Term Space Flight (Energy) determines the crew members energy requirements for long-term space flight. There is no compensation for severe negative energy balance during space flight. This energy deficit affects all physiological functions. Energy  measures changes in energy balance after long-term space flight, adaptations in the components of the total energy expenditure, and help to derive an equation for the energy requirements of crew members. 

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Space Applications
Astronauts often lose body mass with extended stays in space for reasons that remain unclear, although increased exercise as a microgravity countermeasure may be a factor. Knowing details of astronaut metabolism and activity, combined with other conditions, will help ensure that crews are properly nourished on long missions.

Earth Applications
Extended bed rest due to age or illness has some parallels to a proper energy balance. Improved understanding from space missions will help in assessing patient needs on Earth.

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Operational Requirements
Information Pending

Operational Protocols

Diet consultation prior to BDC. Between L-5m and launch, the subject shall perform one ENERGY session, which protocol is similar to the in-flight. Body mass shared data close to launch. DEXA scan shared data (desired). This BDC session remains valid for 6mths. No BDC for control subjects.



After L+3 months and >3 weeks before return (2.5 months after launch and 2 weeks before return for shorter mission duration): - Crew-conference before session - Energy standard meals on Day 0 and breakfast on Day 1 - Resting Metabolic Rate (via PFS), Diet Induced Thermogenesis (via PFS), Total Energy Expenditure (via Double Labelled Water method) - Urine and Water sampling - Diet-logs after each meal during session - Body mass (via data-sharing) - Activity monitoring using actimeter Note: At least 3 Control subjects required for which only urine samples are required. Note: for 1-year crew: 1 mandatory session between L+3 months and L+6 months, 1 desired session between L+ 9 months to R-3 weeks.



Between R+2 days to R+7 days:  Body mass measurement. DEXA scan shared data (ideal to have).

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Decadal Survey Recommendations

Information Pending

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Results/More Information

This is the first mission incorporating Energy operations.

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Results Publications

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Ground Based Results Publications

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ISS Patents

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Related Publications

    Bergouignan A, Momken I, Schoeller DA, Normand S, Zahariev A, Lescure B, Simon C, Blanc S.  Regulation of energy balance during long-term physical inactivity induced by bed rest with and without exercise training. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2010 March; 95(3): 1045-1053. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2009-1005.

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Related Websites

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image NASA Image: ISS033E010000 - Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Aki Hoshide,Expedition 33 flight engineer,conducts an Oxygen Uptake Measurement (OUM) for the ESA experiment ENERGY in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station. A G1s camcorder is visible in the in upper left corner .
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image NASA Image: ISS031E031822 - An open can of food floats near the Energy (Astronaut's Energy Requirements for Long-Term Space Flight) experiment Food Kit.
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image NASA Image: ISS037E004951 - ESA astronaut Luca Parmitano participating in the Energy investigation.
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image NASA Image: ISS031E031829 - ESA astronaut Andre Kuipers poses for a photo with an open can of food from the Energy experiment.
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