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Pulmonary Function System
04.26.13
 
 

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Facility Summary

This content was provided by Cynthia P. Haven, and is maintained in a database by the ISS Program Science Office.

Brief Summary

The Pulmonary Function System (PFS) is a collaborative effort between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA) to develop a system for pulmonary physiology monitoring on the International Space Station (ISS). The system was completed with the addition of Human Research Facility - 2 (HRF-2) during Expedition 11. The components include the Pulmonary Function Module (PFM), Photoacoustic Analyzer Module (PAM), Gas Analyzer System for Metabolic Analysis Physiology (GASMAP) and Gas Delivery System (GDS).

Facility Manager(s)

  • Cynthia P. Haven, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, United States
  • Facility Representative(s)

    Information Pending

    Developer(s)

    Danish Aerospace Medical Centre (DAMEC), Odense, , Denmark
    Innovision, Odense, , Denmark

    Sponsoring Space Agency

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

    Sponsoring Organization

    Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD)

    ISS Expedition Duration

    April 2005 - March 2010

    Expeditions Assigned

    11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19/20,21/22

    Previous ISS Missions

    Information Pending

    Availability

  • Retired/Returned/Disposed
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    Facility Overview

    • The Pulmonary Function System (PFS) is the result of a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA) on the development of pulmonary physiology instrumentation. The ESA components include the Pulmonary Function Module (PFM: measures cardiovascular and respiratory functions) and the Photoacoustic Analyzer Module (PAM: measures respired gases). The NASA components include the Gas Analyzer System for Metabolic Analysis Physiology (GASMAP: mass spectrometer) and the Gas Delivery System (GDS: provides calibration gases).


    • Through interconnections between components, two different respiratory instruments can be created. These are called:
      • Mass-spectrometer-based Analyzer System (MAS) that utilizes GASMAP, PFM and GDS.

      • Photoacoustic-based Analyzer System (PAS) utilizes the PAM, PFM, and GDS. Data from both systems can be downlinked or archived for analysis.
    The Pulmonary Function System (PFS) is a collaborative development between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in pulmonary physiology instrumentation. It contains four modules which are the building blocks of the system. Using these modules, it is possible to take a variety of respiratory and cardiovascular measurements.

    The four modules which create the PFS include:
    • The Photoacoustic Analyzer Module (PAM), developed by ESA, determines the concentration of seven respired gas components that also may contain significant concentrations of nitrogen and water vapor utilizing two photoacoustic analyzers and the oxygen analyzer mixture.


    • The Pulmonary Function Module (PFM), developed by ESA, when operated together with either the GASMAP or PAM plus the GDS forms a respiratory facility capable of a wide range of respiratory and cardiovascular measurements including, breath-by-breath measurements, diffusing capacity of the lung, expiratory reserve volume, forced expired spirometry, functional residual capacity, cardiac output, alveolar ventilation, volume of pulmonary capillary blood, and numerous other specialized tests of pulmonary function. It consists of the Respiratory Valve Unit (RVU), with associated flow-meters and re-breathing bag, and an electronics unit which are accommodated in an 8 panel unit (PU) drawer.


    • The Gas Analyzer System for Metabolic Analysis Physiology (GASMAP), developed by NASA, utilizes the Random Access Mass Spectrometer (RAMS) to determine the concentration of up to 20 gas components of the respired gas mixtures. The GASMAP can control and acquire the data from external equipment, such as blood pressure instrumentation, an ECG system, a respiratory flow-meter, exercise ergometer/treadmill, etc. It is accommodated in an eight PU drawer.


    • The Gas Delivery System (GDS), developed by NASA, provides special gas mixtures needed for the calibration of the GASMAP and PAM and for the performance of such physiological tests as re-breathing and washout measurements. The GDS supports five canisters of gas mixtures (180 liters each) which are permanently present on-orbit and supports re-supply of these gases. The gas mixtures are supplied at an outlet pressure in the range 3 - 4 bar. It is accommodated in a four PU drawer.
    Through re-configuration of the interconnections between these building blocks, it is possible to create two different respiratory instruments:
    • The Mass-spectrometer-based Analyzer System (MAS), utilizes the GASMAP, PFM and GDS.

    • The Photoacoustic-based Analyzer System (PAS), utilizes the PAM, PFM and GDS.
    GASMAP was successfully utilized for PuFF experiment following its launch in Increment 2.

    In Expedition 11, ESA in cooperation with NASA expanded the capabilities of pulmonary function hardware with the addition of the PFS system. In Expedition 13 the PFS system was expanded with the capability to measure aerobic capacity (VO2) through introduction of a 15 liter mixing bag/valving system.

    During the ESA Long Duration Mission, Astrolab, PFS was used in the Long Term Microgravity: A Model for Investigating Mechanisms of Heart Disease with New Portable Equipment (Card) experiment in the PAS mode. Following the introduction of the mixing bag the PFS system has been in evaluation, to measure aerobic capacity of crew and has been utilized in the crew Periodic Fitness Evaluation (PFE) with Oxygen Uptake Measurements (OUM).

    The PFS system located in HRF Rack 2 will be relocated to the Columbus module after its addition to the ISS during Expedition 17. The PFS will be co-located with the European Physiology Model (EPM) to allow for further collaborative medical investigations supported by both NASA and ESA. When operated together the PFS components form a respiratory facility capable of a wide range of respiratory and cardiovascular measurements. Crewmembers will follow procedures developed for specifically developed for each measurement.

    Operations

    Facility Operations

    When operated together the PFS components form a respiratory facility capable of a wide range of respiratory and cardiovascular measurements. Crewmembers will follow procedures developed for specifically developed for each measurement.

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    Results/More Information

    Results Publications

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    Ground Based Results Publications

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    ISS Patents

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    Related Publications

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    Related Websites
  • ESA - Research Human Spaceflight and Exploration News
  • ISS Medical Project
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    Imagery

    image NASA Image: ISS015E34422 - View of Human Research Facility - 2 (HRF-2), with the Pulmonary Function System components installed, in the U.S. Laboratory, Destiny, taken during Expedition 15.
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    image NASA Image: ISS013E56857 - European Space Agency (ESA) Astronaut, Thomas Reiter checking the Pulmonary Function System (PFS) Upgrade hardware while acquiring Oxygen Uptake Measurements (OUM) during a Periodic Fitness Evaluation (PFE) with Expedition 13 Flight Engineer-1 (FE-1)and NASA Space Station Science Officer, Jeffrey Williams.
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