Influence of Factors of the Space Environment on the Condition of the System of Microorganisms-Hosts Relating to the Problem of Environmental Safety of Flight Techniques and Planetary Quarantine (Biorisk-KM) - 05.13.15

Overview | Description | Applications | Operations | Results | Publications | Imagery

ISS Science for Everyone

Science Objectives for Everyone
Biorisk is looking at the effects of microbial bacteria and fungus on structural materials used in spacecraft construction. Specifically this study will be investigating the effects of how changes in solar activity affect the growth of these microbes.
Science Results for Everyone
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The following content was provided by Natalia Novikova, Nataliya D. Novikova, Ph.D., and is maintained in a database by the ISS Program Science Office.
Experiment Details

OpNom:

Principal Investigator(s)
Natalia Novikova, Institute of Medical and Biological Problems of Russian Academy of Sciences (IMBP RAS), Russia
Nataliya D. Novikova, Ph.D., Institute of Biomedical Problems, Moscow, Russia

Co-Investigator(s)/Collaborator(s)
Information Pending

Developer(s)
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Sponsoring Space Agency
Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos)

Sponsoring Organization
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Research Benefits
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ISS Expedition Duration
June 2002 - September 2013

Expeditions Assigned
5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19/20,21/22,23/24,25/26,27/28,29/30,31/32,33/34,35/36

Previous ISS Missions
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Experiment Description

Research Overview
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Description
Acquisition of new data on possible manifestations (boundaries) of phenotypic adaptation and genotypic changes in bacterial and fungus associations forming a typical microbiota of structural materials used in space technology.

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Applications

Space Applications
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Earth Applications
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Operations

Operational Requirements
Biorisk-KM Kit, Biorisk-MCB Container.

Operational Protocols
Accommodation and exposure of "passive" samples of structural materials and "microorganisms - substrates" systems inside the ISS Service Module.

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Results/More Information

Planetary protection is one of the key problems of deep space exploration. Risks of the possible transfer of biological material across interplanetary space are being assessed during space exploration. The Biorisk investigation examines the impact of the space environment on a variety of bacteria, fungi, plant seeds and dormant organisms.

 

Initial results from the second (April 2007 – July 2008) Biorisk study indicated that bacterial and fungal spores in the resting stages and evolutionary advanced organisms in the dormant stages were capable of surviving the environment of space (Baranov 2009).

According to Novikova 2011, an 18 month study demonstrated that bacterial and fungal spores could survive the harsh effects of outer space. Also, following 13-month and 18-month exposures to the space environment, seeds of higher plants remained viable and were able to germinate and produce plants which did not differ from ground controls in their genetic, biochemical, physiological and morphological characteristics. Dehydrated dormant larvae of lower crustaceans were capable of surviving the extremes of the space environment. 

 

One of the many seeds tested in Biorisk was barley. On Earth, seeds are stored with climate control prior to planting to ensure a successful germination. For the Biorisk investigation the seeds were stored without climate control and exposed to the harsh environment of space. Eighty-two percent of the barley seeds within Biorisk were successfully germinated upon return to Earth. These seeds exhibited normal growth, ripening, and reproduction of several generations. Biorisk results demonstrated that barley seeds can be preserved in the space environment without phenotypic (observable traits) and genotypic (cellular traits) changes for at least one year with healthy and vigorous growth, guaranteeing a safe supply of food in space (Sugimoto 2011).

 

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Results Publications

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Ground Based Results Publications

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ISS Patents

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Related Publications

    Bartlett JD, Scicchitano DA, Robison SH.  Two expressed human genes sustain slightly more DNA damage after alkylating agent treatment than an inactive gene. Mutation Research - Reviews in Mutation Research. 1991 Nov; 255(3): 247-256. PMID: 1719396.

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Related Websites
Energia - Science Research on the ISS Russian Segment

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Imagery

image Biorisk KM kit.
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image Biorisk MCB container.
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image ISS028-E-018265 (21 July 2011) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Samokutyaev, Expedition 28 flight engineer, works with a Biorisk-MSN experiment container in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station
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