Influence of Factors of the Space Environment on the Condition of the System of Microorganisms-Hosts Relating to the Problem of Environmental Safety of Flight Techniques and Planetary Quarantine (Biorisk-KM) - 08.20.14
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Science Objectives for Everyone
Biorisk is looking at the effects of microbial bacteria and fungus on structural materials used in spacecraft construction. Specifically this study will be investigating the effects of how changes in solar activity affect the growth of these microbes.
Science Results for Everyone
Sponsoring Space Agency
Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos)
ISS Expedition Duration
June 2002 - September 2013
Previous ISS Missions
Acquisition of new data on possible manifestations (boundaries) of phenotypic adaptation and genotypic changes in bacterial and fungus associations forming a typical microbiota of structural materials used in space technology.
Biorisk-KM Kit, Biorisk-MCB Container.
Accommodation and exposure of "passive" samples of structural materials and "microorganisms - substrates" systems inside the ISS Service Module.
Planetary protection is one of the key problems of deep space exploration. Risks of the possible transfer of biological material across interplanetary space are being assessed during space exploration. The Biorisk investigation examines the impact of the space environment on a variety of bacteria, fungi, plant seeds and dormant organisms.
Initial results from the second (April 2007 – July 2008) Biorisk study indicated that bacterial and fungal spores in the resting stages and evolutionary advanced organisms in the dormant stages were capable of surviving the environment of space (Baranov 2009).
According to Novikova 2011, an 18 month study demonstrated that bacterial and fungal spores could survive the harsh effects of outer space. Also, following 13-month and 18-month exposures to the space environment, seeds of higher plants remained viable and were able to germinate and produce plants which did not differ from ground controls in their genetic, biochemical, physiological and morphological characteristics. Dehydrated dormant larvae of lower crustaceans were capable of surviving the extremes of the space environment.
One of the many seeds tested in Biorisk was barley. On Earth, seeds are stored with climate control prior to planting to ensure a successful germination. For the Biorisk investigation the seeds were stored without climate control and exposed to the harsh environment of space. Eighty-two percent of the barley seeds within Biorisk were successfully germinated upon return to Earth. These seeds exhibited normal growth, ripening, and reproduction of several generations. Biorisk results demonstrated that barley seeds can be preserved in the space environment without phenotypic (observable traits) and genotypic (cellular traits) changes for at least one year with healthy and vigorous growth, guaranteeing a safe supply of food in space (Sugimoto 2011).
Sugimoto M, Ishii M, Mori IC, Shagimardanova E, Gusev OA, Kihara M, Hoki T, Sychev VN, Levinskikh MA, Novikova ND, Grigoriev AI. Viability of Barley Seeds After Long-term Exposure to Outer Side of International Space Station. Advances in Space Research. 2011; 48: 1155-1160.
Baranov VM, Polikarpov NA, Novikova ND, Deshevaya EA, Poddubko SV, Svistunova IV, Tsetlin VV. Main results of the Biorisk experiment on the International Space Station. Aviakosmicheskaia i Ekologicheskaia Meditsina (Aerospace and Environmental Medicine). 2006 May-Jun; 40(3): 3-9. [Russian]
Baranov VM, Novikova ND, Polikarpov NA, Sychev VN, Levinskikh MA, Alekseev VR, Okuda T, Sugimoto T, Gusev OA, Grigoriev AI. The Biorisk Experiment: 13-month Exposure of Resting Forms of Organism on the Outer Side of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station: Preliminary Results. Doklady Biological Sciences. 2009 Jun; 426(1): 267-270. DOI: 10.1134/S0012496609030223. PMID: 19650335.
Novikova ND, Gusev OA, Polikarpov NA, Deshevaya EA, Levinskikh MA, Alekseev VR, Okuda T, Sugimoto M, Sychev VN, Grigoriev AI. Survival of Dormant Organisms After Long-term Exposure to the Space Environment. Acta Astronautica. 2011; 68(9-10): 1574–1580. DOI: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2010.05.019.
Ground Based Results Publications
Bartlett JD, Scicchitano DA, Robison SH. Two expressed human genes sustain slightly more DNA damage after alkylating agent treatment than an inactive gene. Mutation Research - Reviews in Mutation Research. 1991 Nov; 255(3): 247-256. PMID: 1719396.
Coordinating Scientific and Technical Council of the Russian Space Agency [Russian]
Energia - Science Research on the ISS Russian Segment
Biorisk KM kit.
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Biorisk MCB container.
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ISS028-E-018265 (21 July 2011) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Samokutyaev, Expedition 28 flight engineer, works with a Biorisk-MSN experiment container in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station
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