NanoRacks-National Center for Earth and Space Science Education-Yankee Clipper (SSEP Mission 6) (NanoRacks-NCESSE-Yankee Clipper) - 07.20.16

Overview | Description | Applications | Operations | Results | Publications | Imagery

ISS Science for Everyone

Science Objectives for Everyone
Under the Student Spaceflight Experiments Program (SSEP), students across the United States and Canada, from grade schools through universities, design their own experiments to be flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The NanoRacks-National Center for Earth and Space Science Education-Yankee Clipper (NanoRacks-NCESSE-Yankee Clipper) investigation contains 18 student experiments, including microgravity studies of crystal formation, seed germination, plant growth, bacterial activity, and mosquito larvae. The program immerses students and teachers in real science, providing first-hand experience conducting scientific experiments and connecting them to the space program.
Science Results for Everyone
Information Pending

The following content was provided by Jeff Goldstein, Ph.D., and is maintained in a database by the ISS Program Science Office.
Experiment Details

OpNom: NanoRacks Module-9 S/N 1015, 1016

Principal Investigator(s)
Jeff Goldstein, Ph.D., National Center for Earth and Space Science Education, Ellicott City, MD, United States

Co-Investigator(s)/Collaborator(s)
Information Pending

Developer(s)
NanoRacks LLC, Webster, TX, United States
National Center for Earth and Space Science Education, Ellicott City, MD, United States

Sponsoring Space Agency
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

Sponsoring Organization
National Laboratory Education (NLE)

Research Benefits
Scientific Discovery

ISS Expedition Duration
September 2014 - March 2015

Expeditions Assigned
41/42

Previous Missions
Information Pending

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Experiment Description

Research Overview

  • The NanoRacks-National Center for Earth and Space Science Education-Yankee Clipper (NanoRacks-NCESSE-Yankee Clipper) is the eighth flight opportunity associated with the Student Spaceflight Experiment Program (SSEP), an initiative of the National Center for Earth and Space Science Education (NCESSE), in partnership with NanoRacks, LLC.
  • Eighteen experiments are selected from 1,487 student team proposals, engaging 6,860 grade 5-15 students in microgravity experiment design.
  • SSEP allows student teams to design an experiment with real constraints imposed by the experimental apparatus and the environmental restrictions of microgravity.
  • Students complete proposals for a flight opportunity, experience a science proposal review process, complete a flight safety review, and attend their own science conference.

Description

The Student Spaceflight Experiments Program (SSEP), launched by the National Center for Earth and Space Science Education (NCESSE) in partnership with NanoRacks, LLC, is an extraordinary commercial U.S. national Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education initiative that to date has provided students across the United States—middle and high school students (grades 5-12), and/or undergraduates at 2-year community colleges (grades 13-14)—the ability to design and propose real experiments to fly in low Earth orbit on the International Space Station (ISS).

Since program inception in June 2010, there have been eight SSEP flight opportunities—SSEP on STS-134 and STS-135, which were the final flights of Space Shuttles Endeavour and Atlantis; and SSEP Missions 1 through 6 to ISS. To date, 84 communities have participated in the program, with over 362,400 grade preK-16 students given the opportunity to participate in their community-wide experience. A total of 35,200 grade 5-16 students were fully immersed in microgravity experiment design and proposal writing, and 7,922 experiment proposals were submitted by student teams. To date, 19 communities have participated in 2, 3, 4 or 5 flight opportunities, reflecting the sustainable nature of the program.

NanoRacks-National Center for Earth and Space Science Education-Yankee Clipper (NanoRacks-NCESSE-Yankee Clipper) includes the following 18 student experiments on Orbital-3, reflight on SpaceX-5 and SpaceX-7 as noted:

Creating Crystals in Space
McGowan Park Elementary, Grade 6-7, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada

For the Creating Crystals in Space project, students aim to learn how microgravity affects the growth of crystals. Some of the questions they are wondering about are: How is crystal growth different in microgravity than on Earth? Are the crystals the same shape when they form in microgravity as on Earth? Do the crystals grow to the same size (mass) in the same time? (Do they grow at the same speed?) Do the crystals grow to the same size (volume) in the same time? (Do they grow at the same speed?) Is the concentration of the crystals the same? Where do crystals grow in the tube? Is diffusion of the high concentration to the low concentration solution the same in microgravity and on Earth?  This research is important because it allows students to learn more about how fluids act and how crystals (precipitate) form in microgravity. The advantage of understanding if a solid has a different structure in microgravity is that solids with different properties and unique materials can be created. It may also help to move forward with a better understanding of how fluid mixing and crystal formation works in space. (NRP-10009-3, S/N 1015) [Orb-3, SpX-5]
 
Composting in Microgravity
Urban Promise Academy, Grade 6, Oakland, California

Composting in Microgravity asks the question: Are Eisenia fetida (red worms) able to compost food waste into soil in microgravity? If they can, it means that fertile soil can be created in space that helps plants grow, gives off oxygen, and even provides food for astronauts and scientists on the International Space Station (ISS).  Sending some Eisenia fetida to microgravity and seeing if they compost food waste into soil, this hypothesis is being tested. The same experiment is conducted on the Earth in order to compare and contrast the ground results and microgravity results. This is important because the results will determine if Eisenia Fetida can compost food waste into soil for plant seeds. Growing plants in fertile soil could provide food and oxygen to everyone on the ISS and future space travelers. It is also important because this could help the astronauts and scientists on the ISS decrease the amount of space that food waste takes up. (NRP-10009-6, S/N 1016) [Orb-3, SpX-5]

Effects of Microgravity on Early Musca Domestica Growth
San Marino High School, Grade 11, San Marino, California

The Effects of Microgravity on Early Musca Domestica Growth experiment investigates the development of Musca domestica (the common housefly) from pupae to adult in microgravity. The housefly, in addition to being a well-known carrier of disease, is also an ideal candidate for studying development, as it is both prevalent, and the right size for the confines of the experiment. One to 2 weeks is the average extent of a house fly’s life cycle but the pupae can remain dormant for upwards of 1 month, and the adult fly itself can enter a stage of dormancy for close to 2 days in cold conditions. The experiment involves the transportation of dormant Musca domestica pupae into microgravity where warmer temperatures induce the flies to exit dormancy, develop, and eventually hatch from the pupae. The flies are then preserved through a mixture of permethrin and formaldehyde to ensure a lack of physical trauma. The flies are examined on earth for macro- and microscopic changes. By testing the result of microgravity on Musca domestica development any developmental changes that occur in gravity’s absence are determined. If developmental changes are seen it would be of further interest to examine potential differences in hormone gradients as gradients could be easily affected by a lack of gravity. The implications of developmental differences are widespread as space travel becomes more ubiquitous and permanent life in space becomes closer to reality. (NRP-10009-6, S/N 1015) [Orb-3, SpX-5]

The Effects of Microgravity on the Development of Chrysanthemum morifolium Seeds
The George Washington University and Georgetown University, Sophomores and Juniors, Washington, DC

The air we breathe plays an integral role in human health. Indoor air pollution can cause detrimental health effects such as sick-building syndrome and cancer. These health problems become problematic when considering the enclosed nature of space vehicles. Research has found that Chrysanthemum morifolium plants are able to remove harmful toxins from the air. The goal of this experiment is to expand upon this research and determine if these plants could be used to purify the air on crewed space vehicles. In order to ensure that Chrysanthemum morifolium plants can be used for extended periods of time, it is beneficial for the plants to successfully reproduce to guarantee their air purifying effects during long-term space exploration. Therefore, this experiment determines the ability of Chrysanthemum morifolium seeds to germinate in a microgravity environment. Seeds, potting mix, and distilled water are used to initiate the germination process in space. After returning to Earth, the seeds are planted alongside a control group and the growth rates of the 2 groups are compared. Finally, seeds are cultivated from each group to determine if seeds from a plant in the experimental group can germinate and grow into a healthy plant. The results of this proposed experiment may provide a means for NASA to adequately purify space vehicles, even for long-term space flights. This strategy could improve spaceflight passenger health by reducing the prevalence of pollutant-associated health problems. (NRP-10009-1, S/N 1016) [Orb-3, SpX-5]

The Effect of Microgravity on Phototropism and Geotropism on the Germination of Soybean Seeds
Iberville Math, Science & Arts Academy-West, Grade 4, Plaquemine, Louisiana

Plants are important to life on Earth and will be important to life in space, too. Plants can be used for food, to help replenish the oxygen supply, and can potentially help recycle air and water for future space explorers. The students at Science & Arts Academy-West have conducted research about the need to find a quick and effective method of growing plants in space. The problem with growing plants in space is that it is not like growing plants here on Earth. There are challenges such as a lack of gravity and naturally occurring light. There is also a limited amount of space available for crops. The Effect of Microgravity on Phototropism and Geotropism on the Germination of Soybean Seeds examines how plants begin growing in space, by studying the germination of soybeans. Soybeans are sent to space and the same experiment is replicated on Earth to see if a microgravity environment effects the germination of soybeans. The experiment determines how the soybean seeds germinate differently in space versus on Earth. Tropism is the growth movement a living organism has toward an external stimulus, like gravity. There are 3 different types of tropism. There is phototropism, which is the movement of plants toward light; geotropism is the movement caused by gravity; and hydrotropism is movement toward water usually found in the plant’s roots. This experiment aims to answer the question, “What will the effect of a microgravity environment be on phototropism and geotropism during the germination of soybeans? (NRP-10009-5, S/N 1015) [Orb-3, SpX-5]
 
Microgravity’s Effects on Dry Lake Fairy Shrimp
St. Monica Catholic School, Grade 8, Kalamazoo, Michigan

Microgravity’s Effects on Dry Lake Fairy Shrimp sends Dry Lake Fairy shrimp to the ISS. This investigation hopes to discover if microgravity affects the muscle of these shrimp. The hypothesis is if Dry Lake Fairy Shrimp eggs hatch in microgravity, then the hatched shrimp would be smaller, underdeveloped, and unable to swim because of lack of muscle. Dry Lake Fairy Shrimp are chosen because they are small in size and it is believed that experimental findings can be related to the muscle loss astronauts endure in microgravity. By doing the experiment, students can broaden their understanding of muscle loss in microgravity and possibly find a way to prevent it.  The experiment examines what happens to the shrimp if they are hatched and develop in microgravity. It is hypothesized that when the eggs are submerged in water up in space, when and if they start to grow, they will develop with much less muscle mass and possibly growth defects or develop in an irregular shape or size.  This experiment also determines if the development of the Dry Lake Fairy Shrimp’s muscle loss compares in any way to the muscle loss of the astronauts. There have been other studies where some animals lose a larger percent of muscle mass compared to astronauts. The investigation examines if it has the same effects on shrimp. (NRP-10009-3, S/N 1016) [Orb-3, SpX-5]
 
Coliform Bacteria
Wilkinson Middle School, Grade 7, Madison Heights, Michigan

The Coliform Bacteria experiment tests the effects of microgravity on the interaction of Iodine tablets with Coliform infected water. The experiment involves mixing Iodine tablets with coliform infected water while gravity is “shut off” on the International Space Station (ISS).  Coliform Bacteria examines whether the effects of Iodine tablets are similar to the results conducted here on Earth. A similar experiment is conducted on Earth with the only variance being gravity. Both bacterial samples are examined and tested, before launch, using a water purification test kit provided at the local hardware store. The test is conducted again once the water sample arrives back from the ISS. The reason for this experiment is twofold, one being, water is recycled on the ISS using a water filtration system because the weight of the water prevents the space program from sending water to the ISS for daily use for their astronauts. Secondly, an unknown water source might be discovered while exploring planets and lands both on Earth and in space where water will need to be treated. (NRP-10009-5, S/N 1016) [Orb-3, SpX-5]

Biocides and Bacteria
St. Peter’s School, Grade 7, Kansas City, Missouri

Biocides and Bacteria determines the effects of the antibacterial cleaning agent liquid iodine against Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria in microgravity on the International Space Station (ISS) as compared to the effects of liquid iodine on E. coli in the gravity on Earth. Microbes, specifically bacteria, are present on the ISS; if there were to be an outbreak of a harmful strain of bacteria on the ISS, it would be imperative to eliminate the aforementioned strain as completely as possible. For this reason, the co-investigators would like to determine the difference in the amount of E. coli bacteria eliminated by liquid iodine in microgravity versus gravity. (NRP-10009-4, S/N 1015) [Orb-3, SpX-5]

Baby Bloodsuckers in Outer Space
Columbia Middle School, Grade 7, Berkeley Heights, New Jersey
Baby Bloodsuckers in Outer Space tests the development of Aedes albopictus mosquito eggs in microgravity as compared to normal gravity. When launched, the eggs are dry so when a clamp is released, water activates the fertilization of the eggs. It is believed the eggs will hatch and mature into larvae even in microgravity. On Earth, the larvae float to the surface of water to breathe and mature into pupae. The crew members preserve the mosquitoes shortly after they should have matured into pupae. However, without gravity it is hypothesized the larvae will lack a mechanism to rise to the surface and therefore will fail to mature. On Earth the same experiment is performed. After both experiments are completed, the differences between both specimens are observed. (NRP-10009-1, S/N 1015) [Orb-3, SpX-5]

Hydroponics vs. Microgravity
Gregory School, Grade 5, Long Branch, New Jersey

Our proposal is to determine whether or not hydroponics is different in space than on Earth in terms of plant size, color, and taste. Hydroponics vs. Microgravity determines if hydroponics is more efficient in space than on Earth. The aim of the investigation is to solve the problem of world hunger. Hydroponics might help solve the issue of world hunger if food can be grown faster in space. Since hydroponics is more efficient on Earth, it might be even more efficient in space so that the world hunger problem might be solved by space hydroponics, which will feed the poor and hungry people of the world. In terms of size, a hydroponic garden might be bigger or smaller or it might just stay the same. In terms of taste, plants might taste better or might taste worse compared to those grown using Earth hydroponics. Today, hydroponics on Earth is more efficient than plants grown in soil. One concern is that space hydroponics could have a negative effect by altering the growth structure of the plant. If this is the case, hydroponic growth in space would not be useable if the effects of the altered growth structure are not known. The Gregory School students chose this proposal on hydroponics because they think this is a unique idea and are interested in exploring the results. (NRP-10009-4, S/N 1016) [Orb-3, SpX-5]

Attachment of Escherichia coli K-12 Strain to Lettuce
Ocean City High School, Grade 11, Ocean City, New Jersey

Conditions in space have a profound impact on the human body and all living organisms are affected by microgravity. Attachment of Escherichia coli (E. coli) K-12 Strain to Lettuce examines the impact microgravity has on E. coli K-12’s attachment rates. Previous studies have shown that microgravity increases bacterial reproduction rates, however this group of students is looking at the effect microgravity has on bacteria’s attachment rates. The hypothesis is that microgravity inhibits E. coli’s ability to attach to a host. Reduced rates of E. coli attachment can be beneficial to astronauts if they are exposed to a pathogenic strain; however, these reductions can also be severely detrimental to the human body. Inhibited attachment of the commensal strains of E. coli that reside in the colon, which assist in digestion, food absorption and vitamin K processing, can also be detrimental for human health. E. coli K-12 is a refined lab strain of E. coli that has been found to attach to lettuce. In space, E. coli K-12 is exposed to lettuce for a number of days. Before the end of the experiment, both the E. coli K-12 and the lettuce are exposed to a fixative, formalin, which kills the bacterial cells, freezing them in their positions attained in space in order for accurate analysis on Earth. Studying E. coli K-12’s rate of attachment is crucial for the advancement of science in space exploration. (NRP-10009-7, S/N 1016) [Orb-3, SpX-5]

Can Zero Gravity Affect the Germination of Chia Plants?
World Journalism Preparatory School, Grade 7, Flushing, New York

Can Zero Gravity Affect the Germination of Chia Plants? Examines if reduced gravity has an effect on chia seed germination. This experiment compares the number and size of germinated seeds in normal gravity, to microgravity. This experiment has an impact on humanity because it shows if reduced gravity has an effect on seed growth. (NRP-10009-2, S/N 1016) [Orb-3, SpX-5]

Milk in Microgravity
Colleton County Middle School, Grade 6, Colleton County, South Carolina

Milk in Microgravity examines what type of milk spoils the most in 6 weeks time spent in microgravity. The three types of milk are whole, skim, and 1% milk. After doing research for 2 hours in the library, students found out that whole milk spoils the fastest on earth and skim milk takes the longest to spoil. The reason for this is because of the amount of coliforms in different types of milk. Since bacteria can grow and reproduce asexually, they can reproduce into larger groups faster. Not to mention that bacteria, which is the product of milk spoiling, can grow in any temperature. A benefit is, if you want to drink milk because it has vitamins and nutrients, you need to see which one will stay fresh the longest. Another benefit of this project is, if 1 day they find out that humans could possibly live in space, we would need something to drink other than water. It is expected that the results of the experiment fit the hypothesis, which is that whole milk spoils more in space and on Earth than skim and 1% milk.  The amount of curdles in each section of both MixStix is observed to determine which spoiled the most. (NRP-10009-2, S/N 1015) [Orb-3, SpX-5]

How Does Spaceflight Affect the Formation of Tin Whiskers on Lead-free Solder?
Palmetto Scholars Academy, Grades 9 and 11, North Charleston, South Carolina

Tin whiskers – the crystalline structures that originate from metals covered in or plated with tin – have become a serious problem for electronics manufacturers and scientists. These tin whiskers can short-circuit devices by creating a new electrical current. In fact, tin whiskers have even been known to destroy planes and satellites, resulting in not only considerable risk of human life but in the loss of hundreds of millions of dollars. Tin whiskers have caused the destruction of the Galaxy IV, Galaxy IIIR, and Solidaridad 1 satellites, and more.  The experiment team is interested in testing the entire experience of spaceflight on the development of tin whiskers, including the launch and re-entry. It is believed that the g-force experienced in the journey to and from the ISS and microgravity experienced on the ISS promotes the growth of tin whiskers on the tin-plated testbed and the printed circuit board. A procedure created by Dr. Lyudmyla Panashchenko, a NASA scientist in the Electronic Growth and Packaging program, is utilized to maximize the possibility of tin whisker growth on the testbed.  To test the hypothesis, a lead-free solder testbed is sent to the International Space Station to compare the development of tin whiskers with the control testbed that remains on Earth. The mass of the sample, length, structure, and density of the whiskers are analyzed. The results of our experiment would increase our current understanding of the effects of spaceflight and microgravity on the stability of electronic devices sent to space. (NRP-10009-9, S/N 1015) [Orb-3, SpX-7]

Waste in Space: Exploring the Effect of Microgravity on the Rate of Decomposition of Corn Starch by Rid-X®
L&N STEM Academy, Grades 5-11, Knoxville, Tennessee

The purpose of Waste in Space: Exploring the Effect of Microgravity on the Rate of Decomposition of Corn Starch by Rid-X® experiment is to determine the effect of microgravity on the rate of decomposition of corn starch by Rid-X®, a commercial septic treatment product. Rid-X® contains enzymes and bacteria, which work together to decompose organic waste and produce carbon dioxide. Some of the carbon dioxide remains dissolved in the fluid to form carbonic acid. The rate of decomposition is measured by titrating the fluid in the experimental and control tubes with sodium hydroxide, which tells the amount of carbonic acid produced by the bacteria. The experiment is terminated with ethanol. Corn starch is chosen as the food source and ethanol as the terminating agent because they are pH-neutral, measurement of the small amount of acid produced by the bacteria. The rate of decomposition is predicted to be slower in microgravity because Rid-X® is designed to work in a septic system, which is stratified into layers on Earth by gravity. In microgravity, the bacteria and enzymes in the Rid-X® and the corn starch are expected to float around in clumps. The enzymes in Rid-X® therefore should be more likely to find the corn starch and begin breaking it down for the bacteria to metabolize on Earth than in microgravity, because on Earth they both should sink to the bottom and mix in the layer of sludge. (NRP-10009-8, S/N 1015) [Orb-3, SpX-5]

Reishi Mushroom VS. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
Fayette Academy, Grades 9-10, Somerville, Tennessee

Fayette Academy’s research question is, “What effect will microgravity have on the Reishi mushroom’s (Ganoderma lucidum) ability to weaken, damage, or destroy chronic myeloid leukemia cells?” The project sends the Reishi mushroom and the K562 leukemia cells into a “free fall” environment. There are 3 MixStix in this experiment. One on board the ISS and the second one on the Earth with the same controls running simultaneously. The third one isrun on Earth and includes K562 leukemia cells to see how rapidly they grow compared to the other MixStix. Understanding leukemia, how it can be fought with Reishi mushroom and how microgravity affects it are important. Reishi mushroom has been used for over 4,000 years in China and has shown promising effects. Cancer that starts inside bone marrow is chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). In the center of bones, there is soft tissue that helps form all blood cells. CML causes an untamed growth of immature cells that make myeloid cells, which are a certain type of white blood cells. It is believed the Reishi mushroom induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in various human and cancer cells, which has been shown in past research done at UCLA (Muller I. Claudia, et al.). (NRP-10009-7, S/N 1015) [Orb-3, SpX-5]

How Microgravity Effects Yeast Cell Division and How it Relates to Human Cancer Cells
Williams Middle School, Grade 8, Rockwall, Texas

This experiment is about how the division rate of yeast is affected by microgravity. Due to the recommendation of Derek Smith, a researcher at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, yeast cells are used in the How Microgravity Effects Yeast Cell Division and How it Relates to Human Cancer Cells experiment as a tool for modeling the cell division processes that occur in more complex cells like human cancer. Three volumes in the MixStix are used. The first compartment contains a yeast microorganism. The second compartment contains a yeast growth medium, yeast extract peptone dextrose (YPD) broth, which is usually used to grow the cells in a lab on Earth. The third compartment contains a fixative, glutaraldehyde, to stop the growth of the culture and preserve the results of the experiment for comparison to the ground experiment, which is conducted in the exact same way, except for the gravity. From the results of this experiment, the possible effect of microgravity on cell division is learned. If it slows or stops the division rate, the results reveal methods that can be applied to studies on cancer cells. While in communication with Kartik Rajagopalan of University of Texas Southwestern, said, “Scientists and physicians are always looking for ways to cure cancer in human patients. If we find that microgravity causes a growth defect in cancer, it is possible that [time in microgravity] could be used as a therapeutic option for cancer patients.” (NRP-10009-8, S/N 1016) [Orb-3, SpX-5]

Crystal Formation
Howsman Elementary and William P. Hobby Middle Schools, Grades 5-6, San Antonio, Texas

Crystal Formation examines the growth of crystals in outer space. The experiment is based on the question “How will microgravity affect the growth of Sodium Bicarbonate crystals?” It is believed that without gravity causing the solution to settle to the bottom of the tube, more crystals form. On Earth the gravity causes the heavier parts of the solution to settle to the bottom. This could result in smaller and fewer crystals. The materials used are: pipe cleaners, sodium bicarbonate solution and the MixStix. The question the experiment is trying to answer is: Will sodium bicarbonate crystals forming in a microgravity setting grow at a faster, stronger rate than those formed in a setting with gravity acting upon it? The hypothesis is that the crystals grow at a faster rate and are larger. (NRP-10009-9, S/N 1016) [Orb-3, SpX-5]

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Applications

Space Applications
Students design experiments using flight-approved materials, and the experiments are flown to the ISS. The SSEP is a keystone initiative in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education in the United States, exposing students to new career options and ensuring the future of space exploration.

Earth Applications
The SSEP is a unique way to connect young people to the space program, and to implement a high-caliber, historic education program to prepare them for careers in STEM-related fields. Since program inception in June 2010, there have been 8 SSEP flight opportunities. A total of 84 communities have taken part, with 35,200 grade 5-15 students immersed in microgravity experiment design and proposal writing, and 7,922 flight experiment proposals submitted by student teams. In addition, over 360,000 students from pre-kindergarten through college were given the ability to participate in the broader community engagement portion of the program through mission patch art and design competitions. Over 23,800 Mission Patch designs have been received from student teams. Nineteen communities have participated in 2, 3, 4 or 5 flight opportunities, reflecting the program’s popularity and sustainable nature.

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Operations

Operational Requirements and Protocols
The MixStix are unclamped to activate. The MixStix are returned to the student teams. Each team unseals their MixStix, harvests the samples and compares to their ground truth experiments, analyzes results, and presents results at the SSEP National Conference at the Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum.
A crew member removes the Velcro tabs to open the Module-9 lid. The crew member unclamps the fasteners on the MixStix as directed, enabling the materials in the various chambers to flow. The crew member then shakes the MixStix (when directed) to mix the liquids thoroughly. Repeat for all MixStix. Crew member notes the time of MixStix activation and replaces the tubes back in Module-9. The lid is replaced and secured with the Velcro tabs.

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Decadal Survey Recommendations

Information Pending

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Results/More Information

Information Pending

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Related Websites
NanoRacks
NCESSE

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Imagery

image A team of eighth grade student researchers from St. Monica Catholic School, Kalamazoo, Michigan, practice protocols for prepping their investigation Microgravity's Effects on Dry Lake Fairy Shrimp for spaceflight. Image courtesy of SSEP.
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image McGowan Park Elementary, British Columbia, Canada, sixth and seventh grade student researchers inserting liquids into the Creating Crystals in Space investigation. Image Courtesy of SSEP.
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image Sixth grade students from Urban Promise Academy, Oakland, California, investigating invertebrates at Crab Cove for their Composting in Microgravity experiment. Image Courtesy of SSEP.
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image Wilkinson Middle School, Madison Heights, Michigan, seventh grade students (l to r) Israa Alfadhli, Farah Sabah, Regina Alsabagh, and Maryam Kafra working on their E. Coli sample for the Coliform Bacteria investigation. Image Courtesy of SSEP.
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image Team co-investigators Nicole Ficklin, Eamon Shaw, and Holden O’Keefe, seventh graders from St. Peter’s School, Kansas City, Missouri, preparing their investigation, Biocides and Bacteria to study the effect of iodine upon E. coli reproduction in microgravity. Image Courtesy of SSEP.
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image Lily Walsh, Gia LaSalle, Julia Ellis, Kasia Kapustka, and Bianca Urbina, seventh grade students from Columbia Middle School in Berkeley Heights, New Jersey, examine mosquito larvae and survival rates in support of their Bloodsuckers in Outer Space investigation. Image Courtesy of SSEP.
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image Fifth grade Gregory School student researchers from Long Branch, New Jersey, exploring hydroponics for their investigation, Hydroponics vs. Microgravity. Image Courtesy of SSEP.
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image Lauren Bowersock, Kristina Redmond, Alison Miles, Dan Loggi, Kati Wriggens, and Mercy Griffith, eleventh graders from Ocean City High School in Ocean City, New Jersey, prepare lettuce slides for their experiment, Attachment of Escherichia coli K-12 Strain to Lettuce. Image Courtesy of SSEP.
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image World Journalism Preparatory School, Flushing, New York, seventh grade student researchers discussing data recorded in support of their Can Zero Gravity Affect the Germination of Chia Plants? experiment. Image Courtesy of SSEP.
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image Future doctors Dewitt, Crosby, and Dandridge, sixth grade students from Colleton County Middle School, Walterboro, South Carolina, prepare the MixStix for their Milk in Microgravity experiment. Image Courtesy of SSEP.
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image Palmetto Scholars Academy, North Charleston, South Carolina, ninth and eleventh grade principal investigators practice soldering and working with copper clad, fiberglass circuit boards for their investigation, How Does Spaceflight Affect the Formation of Tin Whiskers on Lead-free Solder? Image Courtesy of SSEP.
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image L&N STEM Academy, Knoxville, Tennessee, fifth through eleventh grade students and mentors, (l to r) Mentor Nick Wilsey, Nick Corbett, Sarah Sellers, mentor Nick Sirek, Ethan Fawver, and Henry Gertsen, conferring on baseline setup for Waste in Space: Exploring the Effect of Microgravity on the Rate of Decomposition of Corn Starch by Rid-X® ground truth experiments. Image Courtesy of SSEP.
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image The Reishi Mushroom vs. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia research team, ninth and tenth grade students from Fayette Academy, Somerville, Tennessee, learns how to use the spectrophotometer to record absorbance and transmittance data. Image Courtesy of SSEP.
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