Advanced AstrocultureTM (ADVASC) - 09.02.15
Understanding the effects of gravity on plant life is essential in preparation for future interplanetary exploration. The ability to produce high energy, low mass food sources during space flight will enable the maintenance of crew health during long duration missions while having a reduced impact on resources necessary for long distance travel. Additional applications of a plant growth chamber include using plants as components of regenerative life support systems for travel to the Moon and Mars. Science Results for Everyone
Astronauts on long missions will need to grow their own food. This investigation successfully grew a mustard plant from seed to seed in two months on the International Space Station. Ninety percent of the seeds germinated, and the seeds they then produced grew into typical plants on earth. Second-generation seeds were produced on a subsequent flight. On a third flight, soybeans grown from seed to seed in space for the first time produced about 4 percent more biomass than ground grown seeds and had germination rates that were comparable. While flight and ground controls produced nearly identical numbers of seeds, space seeds were larger. Experiment Details
Weijia Zhou, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States
Tom Corbin, Ph.D., Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc (a DuPont Company), Champaign, IL, United States
University of Wisconsin at Madison, Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics, Madison, WI, United States
Sponsoring Space Agency
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD)
ISS Expedition Duration 1
March 2001 - August 2001; December 2001 - December 2002
Previous ISS Missions
The precursor to ADVASC, AstrocultureTM flew on several Space Shuttle missions, including STS-107, which was lost in 2003.
- The International Space Station (ISS) provided an ideal laboratory for growing plants and studying the influence of gravity on plants that evolved on Earth.
- Advanced AstrocultureTM (ADVASC) determined whether plants can complete their seed-to-seed life cycle in microgravity, as well as determined the effects of microgravity on gene expression levels and compared the chemical characteristics of the various seeds produced on the ISS versus seeds harvested on Earth.
Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) was a commercially sponsored payload that provided precise control of environmental parameters for plant growth, including temperature, relative humidity, light, fluid nutrient delivery, and carbon dioxide (CO2) and ethylene concentrations. ADVASC hardware was used in a series of tests over three Expeditions (2, 4, and 5). First, ADVASC demonstrated the first “seed-to-seed” experiment in space, growing Arabidopsis thaliana through a complete life cycle. (Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) is a model system in plant biology studies with a short life cycle, a completely sequenced genome, and a history of space experiments.) Next, 35% of the space-grown seeds and 65% of wild Arabidopsis seeds were grown. Finally, soybean plants were also grown through an entire life cycle.
ADVASC explored the benefits of using microgravity to create customized crops that withstand disease and inhospitable conditions, resist pestilence, and need less space to grow. These are qualities that will benefit space explorers and earth inhabitants. Plant growth and development in microgravity will provide a natural air and water filtration system and large-scale plant growth systems. Furthermore, ADVASC is a precursor for growing plants during extended space expeditions to the Moon and Mars.
ADVASC has contributed to National Security, cancer-fighting pharmaceuticals and educational tools for students. Bio-KES, a device that uses ultraviolet light to convert ethylene into carbon dioxide and water, to remove the ethylene from plant growth chamber, can be used to kill pathogens like anthrax. The light, used to simulate photosynthesis in the growth chambers, heals wounds and increases the effectiveness of cancer-fighting drugs in vitro. The Orbital Laboratory is an internet-based multimedia tool that allowed students and educators to conduct their own ground-based plant experiments and to analyze data returned from the ADVASC units in their classrooms on Earth.
ADVASC was designed to operate relatively autonomously, providing temperature, humidity, lighting control, nutrient delivery, and data downlink with minimal crew assistance. The experiment did not need power during delivery and return on the Shuttle, but required continuous power while on ISS. Video and computer support controlled through the ADVASC-Support System sent data directly to investigators at Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) via the Telescience Resource Kit (TReK) system. The crew provided on-orbit support, using syringes to take samples and making sure the hardware was operated nominally.
During ISS Expeditions 2 and 4, ninety-one Arabidopsis thaliana seeds were planted in the ADVASC hardware. The ADVASC hardware was activated on ISS, the hardware maintained a temperature of 22 degrees C, a relative humidity of 70 percent and 16 hours of light followed by 8 hour dark periods. The crew monitored the plants periodically and took samples at scheduled intervals.
For ISS Expedition 5, eight soybean seeds (Pioneer Brand 9306) were planted in the ADVASC hardware and sent to ISS. Following activation of the investigation on ISS, the temperature was maintained at 26 degrees C - 22 degrees C, for light and dark respectively. The relative humidity was maintained at 70 percent with fourteen hour light cycles followed by 10 hour dark cycles. The crew monitored the plants periodically and took samples at scheduled intervals.
Arabidopsis thaliana was successfully grown from seed to seed on ISS. During a two-month growth period, the plants progressed from seed hydration to germination, vegetative, and reproductive stages, producing mature seeds. Ninety percent of the seeds germinated in space, although only 70 percent of the plants grew to maturity.
Some of the seeds that were harvested from the plants grown in microgravity were planted in a ground study. These seeds produced typical plants without any visible abnormalities (Link et al. 2003). During a second ADVASC run, second-generation seeds were produced and tissues were harvested and preserved for RNA and complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) analysis. Detailed results of the germination and harvesting of space-grown seeds in the ADVASC growth chamber in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory have not been released.
In the third ADVASC run, which took place over approximately 95 days on ISS, soybeans were grown from seed to seed for the first time in space. Biomass production in the space seeds was approximately 4 percent larger than ground controls. Flight and grounds controls produced nearly identical numbers of seeds, but the space seeds were larger on average. Scientists found that the seeds produced in space were healthy, the germination rates were comparable to those on Earth, and no major morphological differences were evident. Phytochemical analysis of commercially important components such as oils, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and phytoestrogens have not yet been released. (Evans et al. 2009)
Link BM, Busse JS, Stankovic B. Seed-to-Seed-to-Seed Growth and Development of Arabidopsis in Microgravity. Astrobiology. 2014 October; 14(10): 866-875. DOI: 10.1089/ast.2014.1184. PMID: 25317938.
Link BM, Durst SJ, Zhou W, Stankovic B. Seed-to-seed growth of Arabidopsis Thaliana on the International Space Station. Advances in Space Research. 2003; 31(10): 2237-2243. DOI: 10.1016/S0273-1177(03)00250-3.
Zhou W, Durst SJ, DeMars M, Stankovic B, Link BM, Tellez G, Meyers RA, Sandstrom PW, Abba JR. Performance of the Advanced ASTROCULTURETM plant growth unit during ISS-6A/7A mission. SAE Technical Paper. 2002; 2002-01-2280. DOI: 10.4271/2002-01-2280. [Paper # 02ICES-267]
Ground Based Results Publications
Zhou W, Turner M. Development of the Commercial Plant Biotechnology Facility for the International Space Station. Proceedings of International Conference on Environmental Control, Toulouse, France; 2000
Link BM, Wagner ER, Cosgrove DJ. The effect of a microgravity (space) environment on the expression of expansins from the peg and root tissues of Cucumis sativus. Physiologia Plantarum. 2001; 113(2): 293-300. PMID: 11710397.
Stankovic B. 2001: A plant space odyssey. Trends in Plant Science. 2001; 6(12): 591-593. DOI: 10.1016/S1360-1385(01)02158-6. PMID: 11738385.
Zhou W. Advanced AstrocultureTM Plant Growth Unit: Capabilities and Performances. 35th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Rome, Italy; 2005
Duffie N, Zhou W, Oberstar E, Kornfeld M, Ptacek W. Design of a Crop Harvesting End Effector for the Robotic System used in the NASA JSC Biomass Production Chamber. SAE Technical Paper. 2003; 2003-01-2598. DOI: 10.4271/2003-01-2598.
Negele T, Duffie N, Zhou W. Design of a Reconfigurable End Effector to be Integrated into the Robotic System used in the NASA JSC Biomass Production Chamber. SAE Technical Paper. 2002; 2002-01-2514. DOI: 10.4271/2002-01-2514.
Stankovic B, Antonsen F, Johnsson A, Volkmann D, Sack FD. Autonomic straightening of gravitropically curved cress roots in microgravity. Advances in Space Research. 2001; 27(5): 915-919. PMID: 11594376.
Zhou W, Duffie N. Performance of the ASTROCULTURE" Plant Growth Chamber (ASC-8) during the STS-95 Mission. Proceedings of International Conference on Environmental Control, Toulouse, France; 2000 July 8-12
NASA Image: ISS005E08001- NASA ISS Science Officer, Peggy Whitson looks at the ADVASC Soybean plant growth experiment in the U.S. Laboratory during Increment 5.
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Video screen shot of the NASA ISS Science Officer, Peggy Whitson working with ADVASC during Increment 5. Image courtesy of NASA, Johnson Space Center.
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Video screen shot of tissue from the Arabidopsis thaliana plants. The plant tissues are sampled for RNA analysis on the ground. The samples are taken at two different points in the growth cycle. This picture shows the plants in the container in which they are preserved. Image courtesy of NASA, Johnson Space Center.
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Dried Arabidopsis thaliana plants, from ISS Expedition 4, upon their return to Earth. Image courtesy of Weijia Zhou.
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