NanoRacks-CellBox-Effect of Microgravity on Human Thyroid Carcinoma Cells (NanoRacks-CellBox-Thyroid Cancer) - 10.01.14
ISS Science for Everyone
Science Objectives for Everyone
Finding new treatments for cancer requires detailed studies of tumor cells, but when cells are grown in a lab on Earth, gravity affects the way they grow and the shapes they take. NanoRacks-CellBox-Effect of Microgravity on Human Thyroid Carcinoma Cells (NanoRacks-CellBox-Thyroid Cancer) studies thyroid cancer cells in microgravity, which enables cells to grow in spheres or in single layers. These unique views of cell structure will be used to look for new biomarkers, which can be used to develop new drugs to treat thyroid cancer.
Science Results for Everyone
OpNom BioRack Experiment Containers
EADS ASTRIUM, Friedrichshafen, , Germany
NanoRacks, LLC, Webster, TX, United States
Sponsoring Space Agency
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
National Laboratory (NL)
Scientific Discovery, Space Exploration, Earth Benefits
ISS Expedition Duration
March 2014 - September 2014
Previous ISS Missions
NanoRacks-CellBox-Effect of Microgravity on Human Thyroid Carcinoma Cells (NanoRacks-CellBox-Thyroid Cancer) investigates the effects of microgravity on human thyroid cancer cells.
The goal is to possibly identify new biomarkers in the genome (hereditary information), the proteome (expressed proteins) or the secretome (secreted proteins) which could be used to develop new thyorid cancer drugs or to gain a better understanding of the mechanism leading to cancer development and thus to new strategies of thyroid cancer therapy.
The principle aim of NanoRacks-CellBox-Effect of Microgravity on Human Thyroid Carcinoma Cells (NanoRacks-CellBox-Thyroid Cancer) is to investigate the effects of real microgravity on human thyroid carcinoma cells (FTC-133 cell line). Data obtained from this experiment is compared to the thyroid cancer cells characterized after exposure to simulated microgravity and after the successful SIMBOX on Shenzhou-8 mission (2011, Experiment 14).
Single cancer cells of the FTC-133 cell line are cultured during NanoRacks-CellBox-Thyroid Cancer) investigation. The cells are expected to form three-dimensional multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS), which clearly resemble the respective originating tumor. Under conditions of microgravity, cells keep floating without stirring so that initial cell-cell interactions required for spheroid formation are induced by forces only due to biochemical components actually expressed on surfaces of cells but gravity related push and shear events do not influence MCTS formation. After the SIMBOX mission, it was shown for the first time that FTC-133 cells grew in form of 3D multicellular spheroids and also adherently as a monolayer in space. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) may be involved in 3D aggregation in space. The secretion of cytokines was down-regulated in space. The inducers of tumor neoangiogenesis OPN, IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF-a were all reduced under real microgravity. Several gravisensitive signaling elements, such as protein kinases A and C as well as integrins, are involved in the reaction of thyroid cancer cells to microgravity. The increase in VEGF-d secretion of the original low differentiated thyroid cancer cells indicated a redifferentiation of these cells in space. The hope is to confirm these findings and thus increase the number of experiments for statistical reasons. The overall aim of the studies in microgravity is the identification of new biomarkers which can be used for developing new cancer drugs.
Certain cell receptors and cell signaling mechanisms work differently in space, which affects how cancer cells grow. Microgravity enables cells to form three-dimensional clumps, which can be used to study tumor formation and to search for biological markers. These methods for studying cancer would not be possible in Earth’s gravity, making the International Space Station a unique laboratory for studying cancer.
Thyroid cancer is the fastest-increasing cancer in the United States, mostly because new technology is allowing doctors to find it more easily, according to the American Cancer Society. Results from this investigation may reveal new biological markers for thyroid cancer, which could be used to develop new drugs to treat it.
BioRack Experiment Containers are returned at 4°C.
A crewmember installs BioRack Experiment Containers no later than docking plus two days. After automatic fixation, the containers must remain in the BioRack for a minimum of 12 days prior to the crewmember removing and storing at 4°C for return.