Maui Analysis of Upper Atmospheric Injections (MAUI) observes the Space Shuttle engine exhaust plumes from the Maui Space Surveillance Site in Hawaii. The observations occur when the Space Shuttle fires its engines at night or twilight. A telescope and all-sky imagers take images and data while the Space Shuttle flies over the Maui site. The images are analyzed to better understand the interaction between the spacecraft plume and the upper atmosphere of Earth.Principal Investigator(s)
United States Department of Defense Space Test Program, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, United States
Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, MA, United States
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)Sponsoring Organization
National Laboratory - Department of Defense (NL-DoD)Research Benefits
Information PendingISS Expedition Duration:
April 2006 - September 2011Expeditions Assigned
13,14,15,16,21/22,25/26,27/28Previous ISS Missions
MAUI will be operated on Space Shuttle missions 17A and 2JA during Expedition 19/20.
Maui Analysis of Upper Atmospheric Injections (MAUI) observes the Space Shuttle engine exhaust plumes from the Maui Space Surveillance Site (MSSS) in Hawaii. Observations occur when the Shuttle fires its engines at night or twilight when passing over the MSSS. Spectrally filtered images and spectra of the radiation resulting from exhaust-atmosphere interactions are taken by the optical telescope and all-sky imagers. The data should determine the chemical and physical mechanisms associated with the interaction between the chemical species in engine exhaust and the space environment. The improved models of this interaction will result in enhanced space event characterization as well as the determination of sensor requirements for effective plume and contamination analysis of other spacecraft.
Results can be used to develop a spacecraft interactions computer model for plume contamination assessment and to better understand the interaction between the spacecraft plume and the upper atmosphere.Earth Applications
Results will help in the interpretation of spacecraft plumes when they are observed from Earth.
Space Shuttle will have to be in the field of view while over the Maui Space Surveillance Site (MSSS), Hawaii, during night or twilight conditions. This experiment requires the Space Shuttle to complete three types of engine burns or maneuvers: a vernier reaction control system (VRCS) maneuver, primary reaction control system (PRCS) burns at various angles of attack, and retrograde orbital maneuvering system (OMS) burns. In order to achieve the minimum number of 12 burns it will take multiple Shuttle missions to complete this experiment. It is planned for the following Space Shuttle flights to ISS 12A (STS-115), 12A.1 (STS-116), 13A (STS-117), 13A.1 (STS-118), 15A (STS-119), 10A (STS-120), ULF1.1 (STS-121), 1E (STS-122), 1J/A (STS-123), 1J (STS-124).Operational Protocols
The Space Shuttle will fire its engines while orbiting over the Maui Space Surveillance Site (MSSS), Hawaii. The telescope and all-sky imagers will take images and data while the Shuttle flies over the site. The images will be analyzed to better understand the interaction between the spacecraft plume and the upper atmosphere.
Data are still being collected for this experiment.