ARC ISS Drosophila Experiment (Fruit Fly Lab-01 (FFL-01)) - 07.15.14
ISS Science for Everyone
Science Objectives for Everyone
Drosophila melanogaster, or the fruit fly, serves as a useful model organism to investigate the biological effects of the space environment. In our previous experiment we have shown that the innate immune system of the fly is affected by spaceflight. In this experiment we plan on studying what the combined effect of altered host immunity and altered microbial physiology will be in the space flight environment.
Science Results for Everyone
OpNom Fruit Fly Lab-01 (FFL-01)
NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, United States
Sponsoring Space Agency
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD)
ISS Expedition Duration
September 2014 - March 2015
Previous ISS Missions
STS 121, 2006 Shuttle Sortie
- Since we have characterized the effects of the space environment on the innate immune system of the fly, and several other studies have investigated its effects on microbes, it is important to look at the combined host-microbe system to determine what the potential consequences of space flight might be. An identification of the molecular biological changes within this system will provide not only a mechanistic understanding of the changes induced in space, but will also provide a basis for future countermeasure studies. The Drosophila innate immune system is highly homologous to the mammalian innate immune system, and will provide useful translational information for other organisms as well.
This investigation will utilize frozen in-flight samples, in-flight video data and live returned samples to test the hypothesis that spaceflight will cause a large effect on the in-vivo interaction between a host-microbe system. We have previously shown decrements of the innate immune system of the fly after space flight, and the work of others showing altered physiology of microbial cultures in space. We will measure changes in immune parameters, conduct post-flight assays to assess host-microbial interactions, and use video data to assess behavioral changes as well as viability readouts resulting from space flight exposure. There will be an on board 1g centrifuge control in space, and a ground 1g control to compare with the microgravity samples in this experiment. This study will use and build on hardware and operational procedures utilized previously for the FIT experiment on STS 121.
This study looks at host-microbe interactions in space, this is relevant to all biological systems and will be a useful indicator of the in-flight consequences of having disrupted immune function and altered virulence of microbial systems.
Studies of hosts with disrupted immune function is of importance on Earth when studying immuno-compromised patients and the effects of opportunistic pathogens on such patients.
Crew operations required for installation of units, sample collection, freezing of samples, and proper stowage of units for return to Earth. Images of the flies will be obtained automatically and downlinked.
Install containers on centrifuge and on ug rack.
At TBD time, remove containers from centrifuge and ug rack; replace food trays, freeze samples, replace containers on centrifuge and ug rack.
Repeat 3 times at TBD intervals.
Remove containers from centrifuge and ug rack and stow for return to Earth.
Ground Based Results Publications
Inan OT, Inan OT, Etemadi M, Sanchez ME, Marcu O, Bhattacharya S, Bhattacharya S, Bhattacharya S, Kovacs GT. A miniaturized video system for monitoring the locomotor activity of walking drosophila melanogaster in space and terrestrial settings. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. 2009 February; 56(2): 522-524.
Wilson JW, Ott CM, Quick L, Davis R, Honer zu Bentrup K, Crabbe A, Richter E, Sarker SF, Barrila J, Porwollik S, Cheng P, McClelland M, Tsaprailis G, Radabaugh T, Hunt A, Shah M, Nelman-Gonzalez MA, Hing SM, Parra MP, Dumars P, Norwood KL, Bober R, Devich J, Ruggles AD, CdeBaca A, Narayan S, Benjamin J, Goulart C, Rupert M, Catella LA, Schurr MJ, Buchanan K, Morici L, McCracken J, Porter MD, Pierson DL, Smith SM, Smith SM, Mergeay M, Mergeay M, Leys N, Stefanyshyn-Piper HM, Gorie D, Nickerson CA. Media Ion Composition Controls Regulatory and Virulence Response of Salmonella in Spaceflight. PLOS ONE. 2008; 3(12). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003923.
Wilson JW, Coleman C, Nickerson CA. Cloning and Transfer of the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 Type III Secretion System for Studies of a Range of Gram-Negative Genera. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2007 August 8; 73(18): 5911-5918. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00952-07.
Inan OT, Inan OT, Marcu O, Sanchez ME, Bhattacharya S, Bhattacharya S, Bhattacharya S, Kovacs GT. A portable system for monitoring the behavioral activity of Drosophila. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 2011 October; 202(1): 45-52. DOI: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2011.08.039.
Marcu O, Lera MP, Sanchez ME, Levic E, Higgins LA, Shmygelska A, Fahlen TF, Nichol H, Bhattacharya S, Bhattacharya S, Bhattacharya S. Innate Immune Responses of Drosophila melanogaster Are Altered by Spaceflight. PLOS ONE. 2011; 6(1): 1-10. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015361.
Fahlen TF, Sanchez ME, Lera MP, Blazevic E, Chang J, Bhattacharya S, Bhattacharya S, Bhattacharya S. A Study of the Effects of Space Flight on the Immune Response in Drosophila Melanogaster. Gravitational and Space Biology. 2006; 19(2): 133-134.
Chan KL, Inan OT, Inan OT, Bhattacharya S, Bhattacharya S, Bhattacharya S, Marcu O. Estimating the speed of Drosophila locomotion using an automated behavior detection and analysis system . Fly. 2012 July-September; 6(3): 205-210. DOI: 10.4161/fly.20987. PMID: 22878427.