Quantification of In-Flight Physical Changes - Anthropometry and Neutral Body Posture (Body Measures) - 01.09.14
Science Objectives for Everyone
Living in space causes several physiological changes, including decreased bone and muscle mass and altered fluid pressure, which result in changes to crewmembers’ body shapes and sizes. NASA does not currently have in-flight data about how these body changes affect suit sizing. Quantification of In-Flight Physical Changes - Anthropometry and Neutral Body Posture (Body Measures) uses a tape measure, video and still images to measure a crewmember’s chest, waist, hip, arms, and legs. Measurements are taken before, during and after spaceflight.
Science Results for Everyone Information Pending
OpNom: Body Measures
Johnson Space Center, Human Research Program, Houston, TX, United States
Sponsoring Space Agency
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD)
Scientific Discovery, Earth Benefits, Space Exploration
ISS Expedition Duration:
March 2013 - September 2014
Previous ISS Missions
NASA does not have sufficient in-flight anthropometric data gathered to assess the impact of physical body shape and size changes on suit sizing.
Microgravity effects on body measurements (lengths, breadths, widths, circumferences, and joint angles of subjects exposed to microgravity in an unsuited condition) will be gathered and documented.
If/how individual neutral body posture (NBP) is influenced by these factors will be determined.
This research will gather preliminary data so that we can better understand the magnitude and variability of the changes to body measurements.
This study will help NASA quantify the impacts of microgravity on anthropometry to ensure optimal crew performance, fit, and comfort. Additional in-flight physical changes due to neutral body postures (NBP) and the effects of spaceflight on NBP during extended exposure to microgravity also need to be quantified. This study will use simplistic data collection techniques, digital still and video data, to perform photogrammetric analyses to determine the changes that occur to the body shape, size, and NBP while exposed to a microgravity environment.
Anthropometric measurements will be collected from crew participants during one pre-flight data collection session, three to six in-flight data collection points (early, mid, and late mission at a minimum), and one post-flight data collection session. In-flight data collection will include photo and video-based measurements for body lengths and postures, as well as measurement of body segment circumferences using a tape measure. Body mass will also be measured using the HRF SLAMMD. Ground-based data collection sessions will be performed in the US Lab mockup and the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility at JSC and will also include the collection of anthropometric measurements using an anthropometer, tape measure, photographs, and a 3D whole-body laser scanner, as well as a weight measurement. The video portion of the investigation will not be performed pre- and post-flight.
Flight hardware requirements for this study require a kit to be flown with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware. The kit will include a tape measure, spherical body markers, adhesives for attachment of the body markers, head caps, spandex shorts and top, and blindfolds for NBP.
Comprehensive body measurements have never been recorded in space before. Scientists anticipate changes in crewmembers’ body shapes and sizes due to fluid shifts resulting from microgravity. Long-term changes in crewmembers’ bodies could require new designs for suits, clothing and work stations to maximize health and efficiency during future space missions.
The investigation could help scientists understand the effects of prolonged bed rest, which produces physiological changes similar to those experienced in microgravity. Results could also improve the Neutral Body Posture template, based on the normal curvature of the spine, which is used in a wide range of design standards for ergonomic equipment and medical care.
Twelve subjects are needed.
Three nominal sessions will be performed at FD15, FD80, and R-30 (early, mid, and late during the mission). Three additional reserve sessions will be performed, at FD45, FD105, and FD135, if crew time allows. Scheduling tolerance for the FD15 session is ±5 days; all others are ±7 days.
Real time video downlink is required for verification of camera placement and subject positioning.
Measurement recordings, photos and videos shall be downlinked after each session.
Photographs and video should be taken in front of an EXPRESS rack with space available for movement through the different required body positions.
Measurement of the subject’s body mass using the HRF SLAMMD is also required three times during the flight (within 30 days of each nominal session).
During in-flight data collection sessions, circumference measurements and photographic and video imagery will be collected during each session. The subject will begin the session by setting up the two cameras. Once the cameras are set up, the operator will place the body markers on the subject. The subject will then stand in front of a specified ISS rack in the US Lab module to collect photographic imagery in three postures: a front facing posture (front), side with right arm extended 45°(side 1), and side with right arm abducted 90° (side 2). The operator will take two sets of pictures per posture. After the still photographs are collected, the operator will then collect each circumference measurement twice using the provided tape measure, and the measurements will be recorded in the Data Collection Tool (DCT). The operator will then take the body markers off of the subject and adjust the cameras to collect video of the subject performing Neutral Body Posture (NBP) while floating. NBP consists of performing three phases: an effort phase, a relaxed phase, and a neutral phase. The effort phase consists of the subject maintaining a starting posture, such as a stretched or crouched posture. The effort phase is then followed by the relaxed phase in which the subject relaxes and transitions between the effort posture and a neutral body posture. This NBP sequence is repeated 10 times per session, altering and randomizing the effort phase posture each time in the session. Once the collection of NBP videos is complete, the subject will disassemble the camera set-up and stow the equipment for the next data collection session. The subject will then complete data transfer to the ground of the photographs, video, and measurements. Subject body mass will also be measured using the HRF SLAMMD within 30 days of the other body measurements.
This image contains the subject outfitted with body markers and positioned in each of the three poses that will be used for photographic measurements: a front facing posture (left), side with right arm extended 45°(middle), and side with right arm abducted 90° (right). Image courtesy of HRP.
+ View Larger Image