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NASA Satellites Catalog the Deadly History of Tropical Storm Parma
10.22.09
 
NASA satellites cataloged the deadly history of Tropical Storm Parma, during its long life (Sept 28-Oct 14, 2009) in the Western Pacific, where it caused flooding, destruction and death in the Philippines and China.



Oct. 14, 2009

Parma Makes Landfall in Vietnam While TD22W Born

satellite image of Parma NASA's Aqua satellite AIRS instrument captured an infrared image of Tropical Storm Parma on October 12 at 2:59 p.m. EDT. Parma is the round purple and blue area (thunderstorms) just touching northern Vietnam's coast. AIRS's infrared imagery indicated there were still some strong thunderstorms (purple) with very high, cold cloud tops in the center of the storm. Credit: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen
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satellite image of 22W TRMM captured Tropical Depression 22W's light to moderate rainfall on center on October 14 at 3:52 a.m. EDT. The yellow and green areas indicate moderate rainfall between 0.78 to 1.57 inches per hour. Credit: NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
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One tropical cyclone's life has come to an end in the Western Pacific today and one has just started. Tropical Storm Parma made landfall late on October 13 (EDT) south of Hanoi, Vietnam. Tropical Depression 22W (TD22W) formed more than 300 miles northwest of Guam in the open ocean.

Tropical Storm Parma's long life has finally come to an end in Vietnam, after causing misery, destruction and death in the Northern Philippines and Hainan Island, China. More than 375 people were killed in the Philippines and China from Parma's flooding rains and winds.

Parma made landfall in Vietnam late on October 13 (EDT) and more than 30,000 people were evacuated from the country's northern coast. The U.S. Navy's Joint Typhoon Warning Center, the organization that forecasts tropical cyclones in that part of the world, issued their last advisory on Parma on October 14 at 1200 UTC (8 a.m. EDT). At that time, Parma still had maximum sustained winds near 35 knots (39 mph) and was still a tropical storm over land. Parma's center was 45 miles east-southeast of Hanoi, Vietnam near 20.8 North and 106.5 East. It was moving farther inland in a north-northwesterly direction near 4 mph.

At that time, satellite data indicated that deep convection no longer existed in the storm. Local reports on October 14 at 11 a.m. EDT (10 p.m. Local Time) showed some rainfall occurring in various cities. The airport at Bach Long Vi had a temperature of 76 degrees Fahrenheit and light rain with light southeast winds near 7 mph. Ho Chi Minh city reported light rain with an east wind near 13 mph. The airport at Phan Thiet reported a thunderstorm with 2 mph winds from the northeast. Pharma should dissipate in the next day or two.

NASA's Aqua satellite flew over Tropical Storm Parma and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument onboard captured an infrared image on October 12 at 2:59 p.m. EDT (18:59 UTC). The AIRS image showed Parma as a rounded area of showers and thunderstorms in the Gulf of Tonkin and its western fringes had just begun to affect northern Vietnam's coast. AIRS' infrared imagery indicated there were still some strong thunderstorms with very high, cold cloud tops in the center of the storm.

Meanwhile a new tropical depression was born far to Pharma's location. On October 14 at 8 a.m. EDT (1200 UTC), Tropical Depression 22W was about 320 miles southeast of Guam, near 10.1 North and 149.1 East. It was moving west near 17 mph and had maximum sustained winds near 34 mph.

NASA and the Japanese Space Agency's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite flew over the center of TD22W's center on October 14 at 3:52 a.m. EDT and captured light to moderate rainfall around the storm's center.

TRMM rainfall images are false-colored with yellow, green areas, which indicate light to moderate rainfall between 20 and 40 millimeters (.78 to 1.57 inches) per hour and that's what scientists at NASA noticed from the data on TD22W.

The forecast track takes TD22W between Andersen Air Force Base and the island of Yap, on a northwesterly course. Andersen Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base on the northern end of the island of Guam. It sits atop a 500 foot plateau on the extreme northeast portion of the island. The base is named for Brigadier General James Roy Andersen.

Text credit: Rob Gutro, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center





October 13, 2009

MODIS image of Parma> View larger image
NASA's MODIS instrument captured this view of Tropical Storm Parma approaching Vietnam on Oct. 13 at 0555 UTC (1:55 a.m. EDT). Hainan Island is to the right of the storm's eye and Vietnam is to the left. The very center of Parma's eye is cloud-free. Credit: NASA MODIS Rapid Response Team TRMM image of Parma> View larger image
The TRMM satellite flew directly over Parma on October 13 at 7:53 a.m. EDT and showed a visible eye with heavy rainfall (in red) around it of up to 2 inches per hour. The image is false-colored with yellow, green and red areas, which indicate rainfall between 20 and 40 millimeters (.78 to 1.57 inches) per hour. Credit: NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
Tropical Storm Parma Headed to Vietnam

Tropical Storm Parma crossed over the Hainan Island, China over the weekend and is now poised for a final landfall in Vietnam around 8 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time.

On October 13, at 11 a.m. EDT, Parma had sustained winds near 39 mph. It was located in the Gulf of Tonkin, near 20.3 North latitude and 107.7 East longitude. That's about 110 miles east-southeast of Hanoi, Vietnam. Parma was moving slowly at 6 mph in a westerly direction and its center is expected to make landfall around 11 p.m. EDT tonight, October 13. Parma is creating rough surf with wave heights up to 11 feet, so boaters, fishermen and shoreline residents should have already taken precautions in the region.

The Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite captured a visible image of Tropical Storm Parma approaching Vietnam on Oct. 13 at 0555 UTC (1:55 a.m. EDT). Parma had just crossed Hainan Island and is heading to another landfall in Vietnam where it is expected to dissipate quickly.

NASA and the Japanese Space Agency's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite flew directly over Parma on October 13 at 1153 UTC (7:53 a.m. EDT). TRMM captured a visible eye with heavy rainfall around it. Although most of the TRMM data showed moderate rainfall between 20 and 40 millimeters (.78 to 1.57 inches) per hour, there were some large areas around the eye with moderate rainfall in excess of 2 inches per hour. Parma is expected to bring moderate to heavy rainfall to Vietnam before and after landfall.

Hainan Island, China has already reported economic losses and the loss of life. Parma made landfall in Wanning's Longgun Township around 9:50 a.m. local time on Monday October 12. At the time of landfall, wind gusts of up to 34 mph were reported. By 10 p.m. that night, Parma had already exited into the Gulf of Tonkin, but only after leaving damage in its wake. Three people were reported killed as a result of the storm and more than 35,000 people were evacuated. Early reports from the Xinhau News Agency indicated 228 hours were damaged, and 93 destroyed. More than 45,000 hectares of farmland were affected, and economic losses were near 236.7 million yuan (34.7 million U.S. dollars).

Recently NASA and other satellite imagery noticed a decrease in deep convection on the western edge of Parma. That's likely due to increased interaction with land. Once Parma makes landfall in Vietnam later tonight (EDT) it is expected to continue tracking in a westerly direction and dissipate quickly inland.

Text credit: Rob Gutro, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center



October 9, 2009

AIRS image of Parma> View larger image
NASA's Aqua satellite AIRS instrument captured Tropical Storm Parma on October 8 at 1:47 p.m. EDT as its center moved off the western coast of the northern Philippines. Parma had re-strengthened into a tropical storm and developed some high, strong thunderstorms in the storm's center, according to infrared imagery (purple). Credit: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen
Parma Again a Tropical Storm, Headed for Hainan Island

Parma has reemerged over the open waters of the South China Sea and will head west-northwest, slowly intensifying a little. The storm is expected to pass over Hainan Island before making final landfall in Vietnam early next week.

NASA's Aqua satellite AIRS instrument captured Tropical Storm Parma on October 8 at 1:47 p.m. EDT. The Aqua satellite image showed that Parma had re-strengthened into a tropical storm and has developed some high, strong thunderstorms in the storm's center, which had already moved off the coast of the Philippines. Thunderstorm cloud tops were as cold as -63 Fahrenheit, indicating powerful thunderstorms, with moderate rainfall. Satellite data indicates there is limited, yet deep convection, and most of the deep convection has dissipated recently because of a moderate easterly wind shear (winds that tear a storm apart).

On October 9 at 11 a.m. EDT, Tropical Storm Parma had maximum sustained winds near 40 mph (35 knots). Parma's center is finally in the South China Sea, and it is located about 400 nautical miles southeast of Hong Kong, near 17.4 North and 118.7 East. Parma is moving northwestward near 8 mph.

At 4:09 p.m. local time on Friday, October 9 the floodwaters in some provinces in Central Luzon have begun to subside after days of Parma's heavy rains. Recent reports indicate many people are missing and at least 102 people have died from flooding and landslides. Most of the deaths were reported in the Cordillera Administrative Region of the Philippines.

Parma is not expected to intensify significantly in the next 48 hours because of the upper level winds that are battering it and cooler ocean water temperatures it is headed toward. Over the weekend, Parma's center is expected to sweep the southern part Hainan island and will weaken afterward on its forecast track to Vietnam.

Text credit: Rob Gutro, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center



October 7, 2009

AIRS Infrared image of Parma> View larger image
The Aqua satellite captured both Extra-Tropical Storm Melor (top of image) over northwestern Japan, and Tropical Depression Parma (bottom of image) still over the Philippines on October 8 at 0353 UTC (Oct. 7, 11:53 p.m. ET). The infrared image from Aqua's AIRS instrument showed some high, cold, thunderstorm cloud tops (purple) as cold as -63F still in Parma, but warmer and less powerful thunderstorms in Melor. Credit: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen

AIRS image of Parma> View larger image
AIRS on NASA's Aqua satellite captured this visible image of both Extra-Tropical Storm Melor (top) over Japan, and Tropical Depression Parma (bottom) over the Philippines on October 8. Credit: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen
The Philippines May Finally Get a Break from Parma

The Philippines can't seem to get rid of what is now a deadly and annoying Tropical Depression Parma, but forecasters are now providing hope.

Parma may have weakened into a tropical depression, but its still causing a lot of trouble for the residents of the Philippines today. Parma is again moving over Luzon and is expected to finally reach the South China Sea on Friday.

Warnings are still up for many areas of the Philippines again today. Public storm warning signal One is in force in Batanes Group of Islands, Cagayan, Babuyan Islands, Calayan Islands, Isabela, Ilocos Norte & Sur, Apayao, Abra, Kalinga, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet, La Union, Pangasinan, Nueva Viscaya, Quirino, Aurora, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Pampanga, Zambales, Bataan and Bulacan.

Parma's center at 11 a.m. EDT today, October 8 was 145 miles north of Manila, near 17.1 North and 121.0 East. Parma had sustained winds near 35 mph and was moving west at 8 mph.

The Aqua satellite captured both Extra-Tropical Storm Melor over northwestern Japan, and Tropical Depression Parma still over the Philippines on October 8 at 0353 UTC (Oct. 7, 11:53 p.m. ET). The infrared image from Aqua's AIRS instrument showed some high, cold, thunderstorm cloud tops as cold as -63F still in Parma, but warmer and less powerful thunderstorms in Melor. Those higher, colder thunderstorms in Parma are areas where moderate to heavy rainfall is occurring.

According to the Associated Press, U.S. troops in the southern areas of the Philippines are helping deliver medicine, food and assisting with shelters for flood victims. The Metropolitan Manila Development Authority noted that there are more than 20,000 tons of garbage and other debris in streets and waterways that will take months to clean up.

Parma is expected to keep together until it finally moves over the South China Sea and may re-intensify once over open water.

In terms of the Philippines, Parma looks like the short-term end of this tragic, wet period for residents there. Even though a new tropical depression has formed north of Guam, it is forecast to head north then northeast and away from the Philippines.

Text credit: Rob Gutro, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center



October 7, 2009

Infrared image of Parma (lower left) and Melor (top right) on October 7 › Larger image
NASA's Aqua satellite captured cold thunderstorm cloud tops of both Parma (lower left) and Melor (top right) in this infrared image October 7. Parma continues to rain on northern Luzon in the Philippines, while Melor is now bringing rains and winds over southern Japan. Credit: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen

AIRS visible image of Tropical Storm Parma (lower left) and Typhoon Melor (top right) on October 7 › Larger image
NASA's Aqua satellite captured this visible image of Tropical Storm Parma (lower left) and Typhoon Melor (top right) on October 7. Credit: NASA/JPL, Ed Olsen

MODIS image of Typhoon Melor as it was approaching Japan (outline of Japan at top of image) on October 6 › Larger image
The Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of Typhoon Melor as it was approaching Japan (outline of Japan at top of image) on October 6 at 9:40 p.m. EDT. Credit: NASA MODIS Rapid Response Team
Melor and Parma Mean Double Trouble in the Western Pacific

There's double-trouble in the Western Pacific with one typhoon and one tropical storm bringing soaking rains, dangerous surf and gusty winds to two different locations. Typhoon Melor is affecting the east coast of Japan and watches and warnings are up today. Further south, Tropical Storm Parma continues to rain on Luzon in the northern Philippines.

Typhoon Melor is currently affecting southern Japan and bringing gusty winds, heavy rains and high waves there. High Wave and Gale Watches and warnings have been posted in Japan in the prefectures of Miyazaki and Kagoshima today. For current watches and warnings posted in Japan: http://www.jma.go.jp/en/warn/110_table.html

At 11 a.m. EDT, Typhoon Melor had sustained winds near 75 knots (86 mph). It was located 350 nautical miles southwest of Tokyo, Japan, near 32.7 North and 135.4 East. Melor is moving northeast near 25 knots (28 mph) and is generating 30-foot high waves. At 11 a.m. EDT, the storm was almost due south of the city of Wakayama.

Melor is currently becoming extra-tropical as it approaches Honshu. It will accelerate northeast to the west of Tokyo and reemerge over the Pacific as a strong non-tropical low pressure system.

At 11 a.m. EDT on October 7, Parma had been downgraded to a tropical storm with sustained winds near 35 knots (42 mph). Parma was located 225 nautical miles north-northeast of Manila, Philippines, near 18.1 North and 122.4 East. Parma has tracked north-northeastward at 4 mph. Parma is still generating waves up to 22 feet high.

Parma's forecast track is still somewhat questionable, as different computer forecast models take Parma on different tracks. However, forecasters at the U.S. Navy's Joint Typhoon Warning Center are forecasting Parma to slowly crawl from northeastern Luzon back across the northern island and finally into the South China Sea sometime on October 9. The slow movement across the northern Philippines means more unwelcome rain in the region over the next several days.

Warnings are posted in the Philippines today. Public storm warning signal 1 is in force in Batanes Group of Islands, Cagayan, Babuyan Island, Calayan Island, Ilocos Norte & Sur, Apayao, Abra, Kalinga, Mountain Province, Isabela, Ifugao, Nueva Vizcaya, Northern Aurora and Benguet.

An instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite captured both typhoons in one image. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) captured both Parma and Melor in a visible and infrared image October 7 at 0453 UTC (12:53 a.m. EDT) as Parma continues to rain on northern Luzon in the Philippines, while Melor is now bringing rains and winds over southern Japan.

The infrared imagery revealed that the cloud tops of Parma are not as cold as they are in Melor, indicating that Parma is a much weaker storm. Typhoon Melor has some strong thunderstorms, where temperatures are colder than -63 Fahrenheit.

Infrared imagery has also shown that Tropical Storm Parma has made its track over Luzon, and is now back over the open waters of the Philippine Sea. Although Parma's track over land weakened the storm, the open waters are expected to power the storm's convection and thunderstorms back up. In fact, infrared imagery has shown that convection is already redeveloping near the low level center of the storm.

Text credit: Rob Gutro, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center



October 6, 2009

Terra satellite's MODIS image of Typhoon Parma (19W) re-approaching the Philippine Islands › View larger image
NASA's Terra satellite flew over Typhoon Parma on Oct. 6 at 240 UTC as it started moving back over the northwestern corner of Luzon, the Philippines (below the eye). Taiwan sits north of the eye. Credit: NASA MODIS Rapid Response Team

QuikScat image of Typhoon Parma's winds on Oct. 5 at 10:29 UTC (6:29 EDT) › View larger image
NASA's QuikScat instrument captured an inside look at Typhoon Parma's winds on Oct. 5 at 10:29 UTC (6:29 EDT). White barbs point to areas of heavy rain. The highest wind speeds, are shown in purple, which indicate winds over 40 knots (46 mph). Credit: NASA JPL, Peter Falcon
NASA Sees Typhoon Parma Moving Again…Through Luzon

On October 6 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT) Typhoon Parma was back over land, in the northwestern corner of Luzon, the Philippines. For awhile, Parma lacked steering winds, but is now on a southerly path, and then will turn west and go out into the South China Sea.

Parma was located 240 miles north of Manila, near 18.5 North and 120.9 East. Parma had maximum sustained winds near 55 knots (63 mph). It was moving south-southeastward near 5 mph, and is expected to emerge into the South China Sea later today after it turns toward the southwest.

NASA's Quick Scatterometer satellite (QuikScat) has been watching Parma's winds by using microwaves to peer into the clouds. QuikScat can determine the speed of the rotating winds. This image from QuikScat shows Parma's wind speeds in different colors and wind direction are indicated by small barbs. White barbs point to areas of heavy rain. The highest wind speeds, are shown in purple, which indicate winds over 40 knots (46 mph). NASA's QuikScat instrument captured an inside look at Typhoon Parma's winds on Oct. 5 at 10:29 UTC (6:29 EDT).

NASA's Terra satellite flew over Typhoon Parma on Oct. 6 at 240 UTC as it started moving back over the northwestern corner of Luzon, the Philippines, and the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer captured an image of its massive cloud cover stretching from Taiwan (north) to the northwestern area of Luzon.

Parma is now expected to move westward through the South China Sea and may intensify before it makes landfall either in Hainan Island, or mainland southeastern China.

Text credit: Rob Gutro, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center







October 5, 2009

MODIS image of Tropical Storm Parma in the Luzon Strait › View larger image
The MODIS instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite captured an image of Tropical Storm Parma in the Luzon Strait, heading into the South China Sea, during the early morning hours of October 5, 2009. Parma was passing the Philippines (south) and Taiwan (north).
Credit: NASA MODIS Rapid Response Team

AIRS image of Parma's high thunderstorm cloud temperatures on Oct. 5 › View larger image
Aqua's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument captured Parma's (left area of purple and blue) high thunderstorm cloud temperatures that were colder than minus 63 Fahrenheit. On the right edge of the satellite's view is the western half of Super Typhoon Melor (resembling a half moon).
Credit: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen

TRMM captured Parma's rainfall from space on Oct. 2 › View larger image
TRMM captured Parma's rainfall from space on Oct. 2. The yellow and green areas indicate moderate rainfall between .78 to 1.57 inches per hour. Red areas near Parma's center are considered heavy rainfall at almost 2 inches per hour. The white hurricane shaped icons show the storm's track and projected track after Oct. 2.
Credit: NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
NASA's Aqua Satellite Sees Tropical Storm Parma Lingering in the Luzon Strait

Two instruments on NASA's Aqua satellite captured views of Tropical Storm Parma early today, October 5, while it was almost stationary in the Luzon Strait and it appears that it will sit there for several days.

In the early morning hours (EDT) today, October 5, the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite captured an image of Typhoon Parma in the Luzon Strait and heading into the South China Sea. Taiwan is located north of the Luzon Strait, and the Philippines are located to its south.

Warnings were still effect in the Philippines today: Public storm warning signal 1 is in force in La Union, Benguet, Mountain Province, Ifugao, Kalinga and Rest of Cagayan. Public storm warning signal 2 is in force in Ilocos Sur, Abra, Apayao, Northern Cagayan, Calayan Group of Islands, Babuyan Group of Islands and Batanes Group of Islands. Finally, Public storm warning signal 3 is in force in Ilocos Norte.

On October 5 at 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC), Tropical Storm Parma was located approximately 330 nautical miles east-southeast of Hong Kong, China, near 20.3 North and 119.6 East. Parma is barely moving. Parma had sustained winds near 63 mph (55 knots). Tropical storm-force winds extend as far out as 115 miles from Parma's center, and are generating waves up to 30 feet high, so beaches in both Taiwan and the northern Philippines will experience high and dangerous surf and coastal erosion.

When NASA's Aqua satellite flew over Typhoon Parma today it also captured infrared, microwave and visible images of the typhoon. Aqua's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument analyzed temperatures in Parma's clouds. AIRS revealed that Parma still had some cold high thunderstorm cloud temperatures colder than minus 63 Fahrenheit, indicating some strong convection.

Right now, there's nothing to push Parma west into the South China Sea, so forecasters at the U.S. Navy's Joint Typhoon Warning Center expect it to linger off the northwest coast of Luzon for the next five days. That means more rains and gusty winds for northern Luzon.

There's a lot of uncertainty in the computer forecast models for Parma's path, but he's not expected to become a typhoon again because of upper level winds and the upwelling of cool waters from the ocean bottom. In the meantime, residents of the northern Philippines and Taiwan can expect showers and gusty winds until Parma finds his way.

Text credit: Rob Gutro, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

















October 2, 2009

Parma's center is located near the yellow, green areas, which indicate rainfall between 20 and 40 millimeters per hour. > View larger image
NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite (TRMM) captured an image of Parma's rains already affecting the Philippines on October 2 at 00:43 UTC, 8:43 a.m. local Manila Time (8:43 p.m. EDT, Oct. 1). The center is located near the yellow, green areas, which indicate rainfall between 20 and 40 millimeters (.78 to 1.57 inches) per hour.
Credit: SSAI/NASA, Hal Pierce
TRMM noticed that some of Parma's > View larger image
TRMM noticed that some of Parma's "hot towers" or towering thunderstorms are reaching as high as 14 kilometers (more than 8.5 miles high), indicating very powerful storms with heavy rainfall (gray/black).
Credit: SSAI/NASA, Hal Pierce
NASA's TRMM Sees Huge Typhoon Parma Bringing More Rain to the Philippines

Typhoon Parma is a huge storm and NASA's TRMM satellite sees it is already bringing more unwanted rains and gusty winds to the typhoon-weary and devastated Philippines. Parma, also called "Pepeng" in the Philippines, will bring heavy rains there today and tomorrow before moving back to sea.

Parma is expected to make landfall in or near the northeastern province of Isabela on Saturday, October 2 (local time). That is a mountainous region, and not heavily populated, however its rains will cause life-threatening mudslides. Parma is also expected slam Luzon with rain over the next two days adding to the existing flooded conditions.

NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite (TRMM), a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA, captured an image of Parma's rains already affecting the Philippines on October 2 at 00:43 UTC, 8:43 a.m. local Manila Time (8:43 p.m. EDT, Oct. 1). TRMM noticed that most of the rainfall around Parma's center is between 20 and 40 millimeters (.78 to 1.57 inches) per hour.

TRMM also noticed that some of Parma's "hot towers," towering thunderstorms are reaching as high as 14 kilometers (more than 8.5 miles high), indicating very powerful storms with heavy rainfall.

Warnings have already been posted in various areas of the Philippines. Public storm warning signal 1 is in force in Calayan Group of Islands, Babuyan Group of Islands, Ilocos Norte & Sur, Apayao, Abra, Kalinga, Mt. Province, Ifugao, Nueva Viscaya, Benguet, La Union, Pangasinan, Tarlac, Nueva Ecija, Zambales, Bataan, Pampanga, Bulacan, Laguna, Batangas, Cavite, Rizal, Rest of Quezon, Marinduque, Albay, Burias Islands, Sorsogon and Metro Manila.

Public storm warning signal 2 is in force in Cagayan, Isabela, Aurora, Quirino, Northern Quezon, Polilio Islands, Camarines Norte and Sur. Public storm warning signal 3 is in force in Catanduanes.

On October 2 at 15:00 UTC (11 p.m. local Asia/Manila Time, 11 a.m. EDT), Typhoon Parma had maximum sustained winds near 115 knots (132 mph) with higher gusts. That makes Parma a Category 4 Typhoon on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. Parma's center is located about 230 nautical miles east-northeast of Manila, the Philippines, near 16.2 North and 124.3 East.

At 11 a.m. EDT this morning, October 2, Manila is already experiencing rain and gusty winds, which will be tropical storm force later today. Typhoon Parma is a huge storm, and tropical storm-force winds extend outward from the center to as far as 210 miles. Hurricane/Typhoon-force winds extend up to 80 miles from Parma's center. Those winds are generating huge and dangerous ocean waves, as high as 32 feet high.

Parma is moving northwest at 8 mph and will continue in that direction, heading toward northeastern Luzon. For weather radar from Luzon go to: http://www.wunderground.com/wundermap/?lat=14.57999992&lon=120.98000336&zoom=8&pin=Manila%20Luzon%20Island%2c%20Philippines&type=hyb&rad=0&wxsn=0&svr=0&cams=0&sat=1&sat.num=1&sat.spd=25&sat.opa=85&sat.gtt1=109&sat.gtt2=108&sat.type=IR4&riv=0&mm=0&hur=0.

The National Hurricane Center's definition for a Category 4 Hurricane/Typhoon reads, "Sustained winds 131-155 mph (114-135 kt or 210-249 km/hr). Extremely dangerous winds causing devastating damage are expected. Some wall failures with some complete roof structure failures on houses will occur. All signs are blown down. Complete destruction of mobile homes (primarily pre-1994 construction). Extensive damage to doors and windows is likely. Numerous windows in high rise buildings will be dislodged and become airborne. Windborne debris will cause extensive damage and persons struck by the wind-blown debris will be injured or killed. Most trees will be snapped or uprooted. Fallen trees could cut off residential areas for days to weeks. Electricity will be unavailable for weeks after the hurricane passes."

For contact information on Philippine rescue operations, assistance groups, donations and more, go to http://www.quezon.ph/2009/09/26/how-to-help/

After departing the Philippines, Parma will veer west, into the Luzon Strait and then into the northern South China Sea. Residents of eastern China and Taiwan need to monitor the progress of this storm.

Text credit: Rob Gutro, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center



October 1, 2009

Typhoon Parma approaching the Philippines (left), part of which are already under a part of Parma's clouds. > View larger image
The MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite captured an image of Typhoon Parma on October 1 at 2:25 UTC (10:25 a.m. local Asia/Manila Time) approaching the Philippines (left), part of which are already under a part of Parma's clouds.
Credit: NASA/MODIS Rapid Response
NASA's Aqua satellite data created this microwave image of Parma on September 30 at 12:59 p.m. EDT (16:59 UTC). > View larger image
NASA's Aqua satellite data created this microwave image of Parma on September 30 at 12:59 p.m. EDT (16:59 UTC). Cold areas (yellow-green) stretch from Luzon in the northern Philippines south past Mindanano, and indicate precipitation or ice in the cloud tops. The purple area (around the eye) that almost looks like a shoe, has the coldest cloud temperatures to -63F and suggest cloud tops near the tropopause.
Credit: NASA JPL/Ed Olsen
This infrared image from AIRS better shows the extent of Parma's high clouds (in purple and blue) on September 30. > View larger image
This infrared image from AIRS better shows the extent of Parma's high clouds (in purple and blue) on September 30. The highest, coldest, thunderstorm cloud tops are in purple (as cold as -63F).
Credit: NASA/JPL, Ed Olsen
TRMM captured Super Typhoon Parma's areas of heavy rainfall on September 30 at 11:51 a.m. EDT (15:51 UTC). > View larger image
TRMM captured Super Typhoon Parma's areas of heavy rainfall on September 30 at 11:51 a.m. EDT (15:51 UTC). The yellow and green areas indicate moderate rainfall between .78 to 1.57 inches per hour. Red areas near Parma's center are considered heavy rainfall at almost 2 inches per hour.
Credit: NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
Warnings Up for Philippines as Parma Powers Up to a Super Typhoon

Warnings have been posted in the extreme northeastern Philippines as Parma has powered up into a Super Typhoon, and its new forecast track takes it over the northeastern tip of the Philippines, and three NASA satellites are keeping tabs on it.

Public storm warning signal 1 is in force in Camarines Norte & Sur and Catanduanes, the Philippines. Overnight, Parma's sustained winds increased to 149 mph (130 knots), just 7 mph shy of a Category 5 typhoon. Right now, Thursday, October 1 at 0900 UTC (5 p.m. local Asia/Manila Time or 5 a.m. EDT) Parma is a strong Category Four Typhoon.

The U.S. Navy's Joint Typhoon Warning Center forecast noted "Parma located approximately 520 nautical miles east-southeast of Manila, Philippines, near 12.7 North and 129.0 East. Parma has tracked west-northwestward at 18 mph (16 knots) over the past six hours.

NASA's Aqua, Terra and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellites have been flying over Parma from space, providing valuable information on the storms clouds, temperature, rainfall, and more.

NASA's Aqua satellite flew over Parma on September 30 at 12:59 p.m. EDT (16:59 UTC or 12:59 a.m. local Asia/Manila Time on October 1). Both infrared and microwave images were created from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument, and both showed very high, powerful thunderstorms, a sign that the storm was intensifying. Amicrowave image was created combining AIRS and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) data. AMSU is another instrument that flies on NASA's Aqua satellite.

The microwave image revealed cold areas in the storm that indicate ice in cloudtops, and heavy precipitation. Around the eye are the coldest cloud temperatures, as cold as -63F. Microwave data suggests cloud heights to the 200 millibar level, near the tropopause.

NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite also flew over Parma one hour before Aqua, to get an idea of the rainfall that the storm is generating, and what it may be bringing to the Luzon area of the Philippines. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA that can estimate rainfall in a tropical cyclone from its vantage point in space.

TRMM has been providing valuable images and information on tropical cyclones around the tropics for almost 12 years since its launch back in November of 1997. Armed with a combination of passive microwave and active radar sensors, TRMM provides unique images of tropical cyclones, and they are created by the TRMM Team at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. It's a complicated process to make those images as rain rates in the center of the image are from the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR), the only spaceborne radar of its kind, while those in the outer portion are from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI). The rain rates are then overlaid on infrared (IR) data from the TRMM Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) to create the entire image.

When TRMM flew over Parma on September 30 at 1551 UTC (11:51 p.m. local Asia/Manila Time) it captured areas of heavy rainfall around the storm's eye. Most of the storm was seen dumping moderate rainfall between .78 to 1.57 inches per hour, however, in several areas around the eye heavy rain was falling at almost 2 inches per hour.

NASA's Terra satellite flew over Parma on October 1 at 2:25 UTC (10:25 a.m. local Asia/Manila Time) and its Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument captured a visible image of Parma's clouds as the storm's center was approaching the Philippines, part of which are already under a part of Parma's clouds.

Parma maintained intensity as a super typhoon over six hours (from 0300 UTC to 0900 UTC), and is forecast to further intensify prior to landfall on the northeastern coast of Luzon near 48 hours. After landfalling on the Luzon coast, computer forecast models take Parma toward China.

Text credit: Rob Gutro, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center











September 30, 2009

Typhoon Parma (left) and Tropical Depression 18W (right). > View larger image

This NASA infrared AIRS satellite image from September 30 at 1:11 a.m. (Guam local time) shows the cloud top temperatures of Typhoon Parma (left) and Tropical Depression 18W (right). Highest clouds with temperatures as cold as -63F indicating strong thunderstorms appear in purple. 18W dissipated hours after this image. Credit: NASA/JPL, Ed Olsen
Typhoon Parma with a very organized cloud structure, indicating strengthening. > View larger image
This visible image from NASA's Aqua satellite AIRS instrument on September 30 at 12 a.m. EDT shows Typhoon Parma with a very organized cloud structure, indicating strengthening.
Credit: NASA/JPL, Ed Olsen
Come Together, Right Now … Tropical Depression 18W Dissipates, Parma Intensifies

Two tropical cyclones in the Western Pacific are keeping in tune to the 1969 hit song by the Beatles, "Come Together." Tropical Depression 18W and Tropical Storm Parma are already beginning to merge now that 18W made landfall in Guam and dissipated. 18W did bring gusty winds and heavy downpours to Guam, and will continue to affect the surf over the next day or two.

NASA's Aqua satellite flew over the two storms and captured them in one image (because they're close to each other). Parma is located west of 18W's remnants. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument on Aqua noticed high thunderstorms in Parma as cloud top temperatures were colder than -63 Fahrenheit, and Parma intensified into a typhoon. In 18W, satellite data showed warmer cloud top temperatures, indicating a much weaker system. AIRS captured an image of both storms on September 30 at 1:11 a.m. (Guam local time).

At 11 a.m. local time on September 30, 18W's center was 85 miles east-southeast of Guam. At that time, it had not yet made landfall and was headed toward Guam (Guam is 14 hours ahead of U.S. Eastern Daylight Time). 18W then made landfall in Guam in the afternoon hours (local time) on September 30, and has since weakened into a remnant low pressure area.

The U.S. Navy's Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued its final warning on 18W at 7 p.m. local time (5 a.m. EDT) today, after 18W had made landfall and crossed back into the Western Pacific Ocean. At that time, 18W's center 55 miles west-northwest of Guam, near 13.9 north and 144.0 east and its maximum sustained winds were down to 15 knots (17 mph). 18W's remnants were moving west-northwest near 21 knots (24 mph). That's going to bring the remnants toward Tropical Storm Parma quickly, causing Parma to absorb 18W's leftover energy.

At 7:30 p.m. Guam local time (9:30 a.m. EDT) on September 30 there were High Surf Warnings up for Guam, the Marianas Islands, and Micronesia until 6 p.m. (local time) on Thursday. The National Weather Service noted, "Large swells generated by tropical storm 18w before it weakened to a tropical depression will generate high surf on east facing reefs through Thursday afternoon. A high surf advisory means that high surf will affect exposed reefs and beaches in the advisory area producing dangerous rip currents. Expect hazardous surf of 10 to 12 feet Thursday on east facing reefs. The surf should subside below hazardous levels by Thursday evening."

Guam also posted a Small Craft Advisory in effect until 6 p.m. CHST (local time, Guam) on Thursday. A small craft advisory means that seas 10 feet or greater and sustained winds or frequent gusts of 22 knots (25 mph) or higher are expected to produce conditions hazardous to small craft.

As 18W dissipated, Tropical Storm Parma intensified into a typhoon. Typhoon Parma is located to the west of 18W's remnants, but close enough to draw its leftover energy.

On September 30 at 11 a.m. EDT (3 a.m. local time on October 1), Typhoon Parma had sustained winds near 75 knots (86 mph) and was moving west-northwest near 15 knots (17 mph). It was located about 160 miles north-northwest of the island of Palau. Tropical storm-force winds stretch out to 75 miles from the center, while typhoon/hurricane-force winds extend only 10 miles from the center. Meteorologists at the Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (Pagasa) are calling Typhoon Parma "Pepeng" in the Philippines.

On the current forecast track, Typhoon Parma will not make landfall in the northern Philippines, but its center will remain at sea as it passes to the northeast over the next several days. Because residents of the northern Philippines are still coping with the floodwaters generated from Tropical Depression Ondoy (Ketsana), another tropical cyclone is the last thing they need.

Text credit: Rob Gutro, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center



September 29, 2009

Tropical Storm Parma (left) and Tropical Storm 18W (right) on September 29 at midnight EDT. > View larger image
NASA's Aqua satellite AIRS instrument captured an infrared image of Tropical Storm Parma (left) and Tropical Storm 18W (right) on September 29 at midnight EDT. The purple areas indicate the highest thunderstorm cloud tops as cold as -63 Fahrenheit.
Credit: NASA/JPL, Ed Olsen
Tropical Depression 19W Becomes Tropical Storm Parma, 18W Struggling

It's getting hard to keep score with tropical cyclones in the Western Pacific this week as four of them are swirling around. Forecasters have noticed that Tropical Depression 19W has now strengthened into a tropical storm, and have given it the name "Parma."

Tropical Storm Parma had sustained winds near 52 mph at 11 a.m. EDT on Tuesday, September 29. Tropical Storm Parma is moving west-northwest near 8 mph, and is generating 17-foot high waves. It was centered about 90 miles south of the island of Yap, near 8.0 north latitude and 138.2 east longitude. Yap, also known as Wa'ab for locals, is an island in the Caroline Islands of the western Pacific Ocean. It is a state of the Federated States of Micronesia. A tropical storm warning is in force for Yap and Ngulu (one of 14 atolls in the State of Yap).

Meanwhile, Tropical Storm 18W is a weak tropical storm with maximum sustained winds near 40 mph, but they won't last long because of Tropical Storm Parma's influence. Tropical Storm 18W (still un-named) was located near 11.9 north and 148.9 north, southeast of Guam. It was moving west-northwest near 21 mph.

NASA's Aqua satellite AIRS instrument captured an infrared image of both Tropical Storm Parma and Tropical Storm 18W (east of Parma) on September 29 at midnight EDT. AIRS infrared imagery measures temperatures in the clouds, and found some of the highest thunderstorm cloud tops were cold as -63 Fahrenheit, indicating some strong convection in each. There was a greater amount of strong convection in Parma than 18W, however.

Tropical Storm Parma is forecast to move west, then northwest and intensify. As Parma moves northwestward, Tropical Depression 18W is forecast to begin to be absorbed into Tropical Storm Parma in the next several days.

Text credit: Rob Gutro, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center



September 28, 2009

AIRS image of Tropical Depression 18W on September 28, 2009 › View larger image
NASA's Aqua satellite flew over Tropical Depression 18W on September 28 at 3:11 UTC and the AIRS instrument captured this visible image.
Credit: NASA/JPL, Ed Olsen
Tropical Depressions 18W and 19W Form In the Western Pacific

Two tropical depressions formed 450 miles apart from each other in the last 24 hours in the Western Pacific Ocean. Tropical Depression 18W (TD18W) is expected to strengthen as it moves towards Guam. Tropical Depression 19W (TD19W) is expected to move through Micronesia, then move northwest toward Taiwan.

Because both storms are close together, forecasting their paths is a challenge because they may interact.

TD 19W was located 235 miles south of Guam, near 9.3 north and 144.1 east during the morning hours (Eastern Daylight Time) on September 28. TD18W was located 630 miles east-southeast of Guam near 9.1 north and 154.8 east. Both had maximum sustained winds near 35 mph.

NASA's Aqua satellite flew over the TD18W on September 28 at 3:11 UTC (September 27 at 11:11 p.m. EDT) and captured an image of its cloud cover, which appeared disorganized.

Text credit: Rob Gutro, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center