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Tropical Storm Nadine (Atlantic Ocean)
10.05.12
 
Nadine remnants rainfall image

TRMM data on Oct. 3 at 10:49 p.m. EDT showed that Nadine was producing light to moderate rainfall (blue/green) in an area well east of the center of circulation, while the center (red symbol) was rain-free. The approaching cold front that would help bring about Nadine's demise was generating rainfall west of Nadine's center. (Credit: SSAI/NASA, Hal Pierce)
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NASA Notes Nadine Now No More

Twenty-three days after Nadine was born, the tropical cyclone's life came to an end in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. NASA's TRMM satellite caught a look at the fading Nadine one final time on Oct. 3 before it dissipated.

NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite passed above long-lasting Nadine for the last time before the tropical storm's dissipation on October 4, 2012 at 0249 UTC (10:49 p.m. EDT October 3, 2012).

TRMM measures rainfall from space and there was very little remaining in Nadine when it passed overhead. Rainfall data from TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) showed that Nadine was producing light to moderate rainfall in an area well east of the center of circulation, while the center was rain-free.

TRMM data showed that the approaching cold front that would help bring about Nadine's demise was generating rainfall west of Nadine's center.

According to NOAA Hurricane Ginger lasted 28 days in the Atlantic Ocean in 1971. In the Pacific Ocean Hurricane John, renamed Typhoon John when it crossed the International Dateline holds the record with a 31 day lifetime during August and September 1994. Although not the longest-lived tropical cyclone, Nadine is in the top 50 longest-lasting tropical cyclones in either ocean basin.

Text credit: Hal Pierce / Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.



Oct. 4, 2012

near-infrared (left) and infrared images of Oscar and Nadine

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over both Tropical Storm Nadine and Tropical Storm Oscar on Oct. 3 at 1553 UTC (11:53 a.m. EDT) and captured a near infrared (almost visible) (left) and infrared image (right) of both storms. A cold front (top left) is expected to merge with Nadine. (Credit: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen)
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NASA Gets 2 Infrared Views of Tropical Storms Nadine, Oscar

NASA's Aqua satellite provided two different infrared views of the two tropical storms swirling in the Atlantic Ocean. Oscar is battling wind shear that appears destined to tear it apart, while Nadine is merging with a cold front.

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over both Tropical Storm Nadine and Tropical Depression 15 (TD15) on Oct. 3 at 1553 UTC (11:53 a.m. EDT), before TD15 became Tropical Storm Oscar. While overhead, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument aboard Aqua captured two different images of both storms. One image was near infrared and almost visible light, while the other was infrared.

The near infrared image on Oct. 3 provided a look at the cloud cover and the cloud top temperatures as well as the sea surface temperatures. Most of the strongest thunderstorms were identified in infrared imagery by the coldest cloud top temperatures (meaning that they are higher in the atmosphere where temperatures are colder). Strongest storms in Oscar were located east of the center of circulation. That's because wind shear was pushing them away from the center, and that wind shear would continue to batter the storm again on Oct. 4.

Nadine wasn't even showing any high, powerful thunderstorms. Although the circulation of Nadine could be seen on the near-infrared, almost visible image, there were no strong storms around the circulation center.

Tropical Storm Oscar Stretching Out

Tropical Depression 15 strengthened into Tropical Storm Oscar at 11 p.m. EDT on Oct. 3, 2012. On Oct. 4, Oscar's maximum sustained winds were near 40 mph (65 kph). The National Hurricane Center doesn't expect much change in Oscar in the near term, before things get worse for the storm. Oscar's center was 1,245 miles 2,005 km west-northwest of the Cape Verde Islands, near latitude 20.0 North and longitude 42.5 West. Oscar is moving toward the north-northwest near 9 mph (kph) and is expected to turn north, followed by a turn to the northeast on Oct. 5.

Infrared imagery showed that although strong convection and thunderstorms have increased in intensity and coverage during the morning on Oct. 4, the bulk of them are east of the center because of westerly wind shear between 15 and 20 knots. The storm was not symmetric as a result of the wind shear. A storm needs to be symmetric to strengthen, and the wind shear is preventing that from occurring. As a result, the National Hurricane Center expects Oscar to become an open trough (elongated area) of low pressure by late Friday, Oct. 5.

Tropical Storm Nadine Being Chased by a Cold Front

Tropical Storm Nadine is becoming associated with a nearby cold front that appeared on near-infrared and infrared imagery as a strong wedge of clouds with cold cloud top temperatures. That front was moving toward Nadine from the northwest.

In the meantime, a Tropical Storm Warning for the Azores was still in effect. At 8 a.m. EDT on Oct. 4, Tropical Storm Nadine had maximum sustained winds near 45 mph (75 kph). Nadine was located near latitude 39.0 North and longitude 27.2 West, just 20 miles (30 km) north-northwest of Lajes in the Azores. Nadine is moving to the northeast at 23 mph (37kph) and is losing tropical characteristics. The National Hurricane Center expects Nadine to become post-tropical later in the day, on Oct. 4, Thursday.

Text credit: Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.



Oct. 3, 2012

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On Oct. 2 at 11:43 p.m. EDT, heavy convective thunderstorms were found in Nadine's northeastern quadrant by NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. Wind shear had separated the center of circulation from this convective activity so, TRMM found virtually no rainfall near Nadine's center. TRMM's Precipitation Radar data reveal in this 3-D image that Nadine's vertical structure had changed significantly by wind shear since yesterday (Oct 2, 2012). Powerful convective storms northeast of the center of circulation were still pushing to heights of about 12km (~7.5 miles). Credit: SSAI/NASA, Hal Pierce

Nadine Bringing Tropical Storm Conditions Back to the Azores

Aqua satellite's view of Tropical Storm Nadine on Oct. 2 at 11:57 a.m. EDT.  The strongest thunderstorms are north and east of the center of circulation. NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Storm Nadine on Oct. 2 at 11:57 a.m. EDT and saw the strongest thunderstorms north and east of the center of circulation. Near-infrared data, which appears more like a visible image, still showed an eye-like feature. Credit: NASA JPL/Ed Olsen
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NASA satellites continue to gather data from Tropical Storm Nadine on its twenty-second day of life in the eastern Atlantic as it threatens the Azores again. NASA data has shown that wind shear is pushing the bulk of clouds and showers away from Nadine's center of circulation.

A tropical storm warning is in effect for the Azores. The National Hurricane Center (NHC) expects tropical storm conditions associated with Nadine to spread over the northwestern Azores during the night hours on Wed. Oct. 3 and early Oct. 4.

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Storm Nadine on Oct. 2 at 1517 UTC (11:57 a.m. EDT) and captured infrared and near-infrared images of the storm using the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument. AIRS data showed the strongest thunderstorms were located north and east of the center of circulation. Near-infrared data, which appears more like a visible image, still showed an eye-like feature in the storm's center, despite its tropical storm status.

On Oct. 3 at 11 a.m. EDT, Tropical Storm Nadine had maximum sustained winds near 50 mph (85 kmh). It was centered about 405 miles (650 km) west-southwest of the Azores near latitude 35.1 north and longitude 33.3 west. Nadine was moving to the east at 14 mph (22 kph), and had a minimum central pressure of 1000 millibars.

Some weakening is forecast during the next two days, but Nadine is expected to still be a tropical storm when the center moves near or over the Azores, according to the NHC.

Nadine is battling wind shear and cooler sea surface temperatures, two factors that will make the storm transition into an extra-tropical cyclone. Wind shear is so strong over Nadine that the strongest thunderstorms and rainfall are pushed northeast of the center. The NHC forecast calls for Nadine to most likely become a post-tropical cyclone by Oct. 5 or sooner, before it becomes absorbed by a large extra-tropical cyclone.

Text credit: Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.



Oct. 2, 2012

purple/green storm on an orange sea This infrared image of Tropical Storm Nadine was taken on Oct. 2, 2012 at 4:11 UTC (12:11 a.m. EDT) and the center of circulation (yellow) is still very visible, despite Nadine being below hurricane strength. Strongest thunderstorms (purple) surround the center. Credit: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen
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Infrared NASA Imagery Shows Nadine Still Has an Eye, Despite Being a Tropical Storm

Forecasters know that Tropical Storm Nadine is a fighter as it continues to stay alive in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Even satellite imagery shows Nadine's fighting spirit, because although Nadine is now a tropical storm, infrared data clearly shows that Nadine maintained an eye early on Oct. 2.

At 11 a.m. EDT on Oct. 2, Nadine remains a tropical storm and appears to be weakening. Nadine's maximum sustained winds were near 65 mph (100 kph). The center of Tropical Storm Nadine was located near latitude 34.2 north and longitude 37.5 west. Nadine is moving toward the east-southeast near 7 mph (11 kph) and is expected to turn east then northeast on Wednesday, Oct. 3.

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured an infrared image on Oct. 2, 2012 at 4:11 UTC (12:11 a.m. EDT). Despite Nadine being a tropical storm the center of circulation was still very visible. Strongest thunderstorms appeared north and west of the center of circulation, where cloud-top temperatures were as cold as -63 Fahrenheit (-52 Celsius).

The National Hurricane Center expects Nadine's center will approach the central and northwestern Azores late on Oct. 3, Wednesday. Meanwhile south of Nadine System 96L appears to be ripe for development, and may become a tropical depression in the next two days. If the low pressure area strengthens and organizes further into a tropical storm, it would be named Oscar.

Text credit: Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.



Oct. 1, 2012

TRMM satellite data from Sept. 30 were used to make this 3-D view of Nadine from the northeast.› View larger image
TRMM satellite data from Sept. 30 were used to make this 3-D view of Nadine from the northeast. Convective thunderstorms appear in the northwestern part of the hurricane were reaching to heights of about 12km (~7.5 miles).
Credit: SSAI/Hal Pierce
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This flyby was created using TRMM satellite data from Sept. 30, 2012 when Nadine was still a hurricane. Convective thunderstorms appear in the northwestern part of the hurricane were reaching to heights of about 12km (~7.5 miles).
Credit: SSAI/Hal Pierce
NASA Sees Nadine Weaken to a Tropical Storm Again

NASA satellites continue to watch the long-lived Nadine in the eastern Atlantic. Today, Oct. 1, NASA satellite data revealed that Nadine has weakened from a hurricane and is now a tropical storm.

Over the weekend of Sept. 29 and 30, Hurricane Nadine dramatically rebounded. On September 19, 2012 Nadine appeared to be dissipating quickly and was expected to become post-tropical but after over a week of meandering near the Azores, Nadine sprang to life again as a hurricane on Friday September 28, 2012.

NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite's path took it almost directly above hurricane Nadine on Sept. 30 at 0452 UTC (12:52 a.m. EDT) when it was still a hurricane.

At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. an enhanced infrared image from TRMM's Visible and InfraRed Scanner (VIRS) was overlaid with a rainfall analysis derived from TRMM's TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR). The final image revealed that Nadine had a well-defined but ragged eye with the heaviest rainfall of about 50mm/hour (~2 inches) located on the western side of the hurricane.

TRMM PR data were used to also create a 3-D view from the northeast that showed convective thunderstorms in the northwestern part of the hurricane were reaching to heights of about 12km (~7.5 miles).

On Oct. 1 at 11 a.m. EDT, the center of Tropical Storm Nadine was 690 miles (1,110 km) west of the Azores near latitude 35.8 north and longitude 39.2 west. Maximum sustained winds have decreased to near 70 mph (110 kph). Nadine is moving toward the south-southeast near 5 mph (7 kph) and expected to do a counter-clockwise loop over the next day, turning southeast and east.

A Tropical Storm Watch is again in effect for the Azores.

Satellite data reveals that the strongest thunderstorms within Nadine are in the northern and eastern quadrants. Wind shear is increasing and sea surface temperatures are below the 80 degree Fahrenheit (26.6 Celsius) threshold needed to keep a tropical storm going, so weakening is expected.

Infrared imagery from NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument aboard the Aqua satellite show that sea surface temperatures near Nadine are around 23 Celsius (73.4 Fahrenheit), too cold to maintain a tropical storm.

According to the National Hurricane Center, tropical storm conditions are possible in the Azores by late Wednesday, Oct. 3.

Text credit: Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.



Sept. 28, 2012

infrared image of Nadine › View larger image
This infrared image was created from AIRS data on Sept. 28 at 0441 UTC (12:41 a.m. EDT) when Nadine was a strengthening tropical storm. Strongest thunderstorms with very cold cloud top temperatures (colder than -63F/-52 C) appear in purple surrounding the center of circulation.
Credit: NASA JPL/Ed Olsen
NASA Sees Stubborn Nadine Intensify into a Hurricane Again

Infrared data from NASA's Aqua satellite today, Sept. 28, revealed strong convection and thunderstorms have built up again in Tropical Storm Nadine as it moved over warm waters in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. That convection strengthened Nadine back into a hurricane today. Nadine has lasted over two weeks, but is nowhere near breaking the record for longest-lived tropical cyclone.

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over long-lived Nadine on Sept. 28 at 0441 UTC (12:41 a.m. EDT) when it was still a tropical storm and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument captured an infrared image of the storm. A large area of strong thunderstorms developed around the center of circulation with very cold cloud top temperatures colder than -63 Fahrenheit (-52 Celsius).

On Sept. 27, when NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite passed overhead, convection was limited, and rainfall was light around the storm. The TRMM rainfall image showed Nadine had light rainfall surrounding most of the center of circulation. The heaviest intensity of about 20 mm/hour (~0.8 inches) appeared to be located just northeast of the center. That has changed 24 hours later as thunderstorms have re-developed and heavier rainfall appeared in a larger area of the storm.

At 11 a.m. on Sept. 28 Hurricane Nadine's maximum sustained winds had climbed back up to hurricane strength and were near 75 mph (120 kmh). Twenty-four hours before, Nadine's maximum sustained winds near 60 mph (95 kmh). Nadine is currently located near latitude 29.6 north and longitude 34.7 west, about 730 miles (1,175 km) southwest of the Azores Islands. Nadine is moving toward the northwest near 8 mph (13 kmh) and is expected to turn north-northwest over the next day.

Hurricane Nadine marked its seventeenth day of life today, Sept. 28, and is expected to continue lingering through the weekend of Sept. 29 and 30.

Nadine has a long way to go before breaking the record for longest life of a tropical cyclone. According to NOAA, in the Atlantic Ocean, Hurricane Ginger lasted 28 days in 1971. The Pacific Ocean holds the record, though as Hurricane/Typhoon John lasted 31 days. John was "born" in the Eastern North Pacific, crossed the International Dateline and moved through the Western North Pacific over 31 days during August and September 1994. Nadine, however, is in the top 50 longest-lasting tropical cyclones in either ocean basin.

Text credit: Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.



Sept. 27, 2012

NASA's TRMM satellite showed Nadine had light rainfall almost surrounding the center of circulation on Sept.27.› View larger image
NASA's TRMM satellite showed Nadine had light rainfall almost surrounding the center of circulation on Sept.27. The heaviest intensity of about 20mm/hour (~.8 inches) appears to be located just northeast of the center.Nadine's approximate past and predicted (0000Z and 1200Z) locations are shown in white.
Credit: NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
Tropical Storm Nadine taken from the camera in the belly of NASA's Global Hawkon Sept. 26 as it flew over the northern edge of the storm.› View larger image
This photo of Tropical Storm Nadine was taken from the camera in the belly of NASA's Global Hawk at 3 p.m. EDT on Sept. 26 as it flew over the northern edge of the storm.
Credit: NASA
This image shows the flight pattern as the Global Hawk was flying back to its base at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility on Sept. 27.› View larger image
During the Hurricane & Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) mission, NASA's Global Hawk performed a grid flight pattern over Tropical Storm Nadine on Sept. 26 and 27. This image shows the flight pattern as the Global Hawk was flying back to its base at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility on Sept. 27.
Credit: NASA
NASA Sees Light Rainfall in Tropical Storm Nadine

NASA's TRMM satellite noticed that the intensity of rainfall in Tropical Storm Nadine has diminished today, Sept. 27.

The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission or TRMM satellite passed over Tropical Storm Nadine on Sept. 27 at 0739 UTC (4:39 a.m. EDT) and at 0917 UTC (5:17 a.m. EDT). At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., several TRMM instruments were used to create a full picture of Nadine's weakened rainfall. The image was created with an enhanced infrared image from TRMM's Visible and InfraRed Scanner (VIRS) overlaid with rainfall data derived from TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) instrument. The rainfall image showed Nadine had light rainfall almost surrounding the center of circulation. The heaviest intensity of about 20mm/hour (~.8 inches) appears to be located just northeast of the center.

NASA's Hurricane and Severe Storms Sentinel or HS3 mission sent out the unmanned Global Hawk aircraft to investigate Tropical Storm Nadine again on Sept. 26 and it returned to NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Wallops Island, Va. on Sept. 27. While over Tropical Storm Nadine, the Global Hawk captured data using instruments aboard and also dropping sensors called sondes into the storm. The dropsonde system ejected the small sensors tied to parachutes that drift down through the storm measuring winds, temperature and humidity.

At 11 a.m. on Sept. 27. Tropical Storm Nadine had maximum sustained winds near 60 mph (95 kmh) and some strengthening is possible, according to the National Hurricane Center. It is located near latitude 28.7 north and longitude 32.4 west. Nadine is moving toward the west-southwest near 7 mph (11 kmh) and is expected to turn west then northwest as it moves around a high pressure area.

Tropical Storm Nadine has now been meandering around within the Atlantic Ocean for sixteen days.

Text credit: Rob Gutro/Hal Pierce
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/SSAI, Greenbelt, Md.
























Sept. 26, 2012

TRMM captured rainfall rates from Tropical Storm Nadine on Sept. 24, 2012 at 4:35 a.m. EDT.› View larger image
The TRMM satellite captured rainfall rates from Tropical Storm Nadine on Sept. 24, 2012 at 4:35 a.m. EDT. TRMM data showed light to moderate rainfall over the northern and eastern sides of the storm, while the rest of the tropical storm has light rainfall (blue). The areas in blue and green indicate rain falling at a rate between .78 to 1.57 inches (20 to 40 mm) per hour.
Credit: SSAI/NASA, Hal Pierce
NASA Sees Tropical Storm Nadine Curving in Eastern Atlantic

With a weak atmospheric steering mechanism in the region of the Eastern Atlantic where Tropical Storm Nadine still spins, the storm is expected to curve around an area of high pressure. Today, Sept. 26, NASA's TRMM satellite noticed that the heaviest rainfall in the storm is in the northeastern quadrant.

The National Hurricane Center continues to track Tropical Storm Nadine, and expects it to move around an elongated area or ridge of high pressure, which rotates in a clockwise direction. As a result, Nadine is expected to turn to the southwest, then west and then northwest.

Nadine is expected to continue thriving until the weekend of Sept. 29 and 30, so NASA's Hurricane Severe Storms Sentinel, or HS3 mission has gone out to investigate the storm again. NASA's Global Hawk aircraft took off from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Wallops Island, Va. at 6:30 a.m. EDT today, Sept. 26 and it will continue to gather data on the long-lived storm.

Imagery from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite on Sept. 26 showed an increase in the banding of thunderstorms around the storm's northern semicircle. The TRMM satellite captured rainfall rates from Tropical Storm Nadine on Sept. 24, 2012 at 4:35 a.m. EDT and they showed light to moderate rainfall over the northern and eastern sides of the storm falling at up to 1.57 inches (40 mm) per hour. Meanwhile the rest of the tropical storm is generating light rainfall at 0.78 inches (20 mm) per hour.

On Wednesday, Sept. 26 at 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) Tropical Storm Nadine's maximum sustained winds were near 50 mph (85 kmh). It was located near 30.6 North latitude and 30.3 West longitude, about 545 miles (875 km) south-southwest of the Azores. Nadine was moving south near 5 mph (7 kmh) and is expected to turn and follow the edge of that high pressure ridge.

Additional slow strengthening is forecast during the next 48 hours Nadine is moving over increasing sea surface temperatures.

Text credit: Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.



Sept. 25, 2012

Latest Nadine Flickr Gallery




TRMM image of Nadine› View larger image
This TRMM image taken on Sept. 24 at 08:49 UTC provided a look into the structure of Nadine and showed some towering thunderstorms reaching heights of almost 9.3 miles (15km).
Credit: NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
TRMM image of Nadine›View larger image
The TRMM image taken on Sept. 24 at 4:49 p.m. EDT clearly showed Nadine's cyclonic circulation in the swirling cloud elements (visible in white) as they spiral in towards the center in a counter clockwise direction. Nadine's rainfall is very asymmetric with nearly all of the rain contained in a rainband north of the center (shown in green, indicating moderate rain).Right near the center, there were some smaller areas of rain present (shown in blue, indicating light rain).
Credit: SSAI/NASA, Hal Pierce
NASA Satellites See Tropical Storm Nadine "Refuse to Go Away"

Nearly two weeks after becoming a tropical storm in the central Atlantic back on September 11th, NASA satellites confirm that Nadine is still spinning away south of the Azores as a minimal tropical storm. One of those satellites called TRMM has been providing forecasters with rainfall rates and cloud heights.

Nadine initially formed into a tropical depression from an African easterly wave that had propagated westward out into the central Atlantic from the coast of Africa. Nadine initially moved northwestward then northward before getting caught up in the westerlies over the north-central Atlantic on Sept. 15. It was there that Nadine became a minimal hurricane as it moved due east. After two days, Nadine turned to the northeast in the direction of the Azores and weakened back to a tropical storm. Nadine slowed down as it approached the Azores and became almost stationary on Sept. 20 about 150 miles (~240 km) southwest of the islands. Nadine than began moving just south of due east again then finally southward away from the islands. At this point, Nadine lost some of its tropical characteristics as convection died out around the center, and it was declared post-tropical by the National Hurricane Center. A day and a half later on Sept. 23, Nadine regained some of its thunderstorm activity and was declared a tropical storm again. By now, Nadine was well south of the Azores and beginning to move westward again.

The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite has been keeping tabs on Nadine in the central Atlantic. TRMM captured an image of Nadine on the morning of the September 24 after Nadine had again become a tropical storm. The image taken at 08:49 UTC (4:49 pm EDT) September 24, provided a look into the structure of Nadine by way of the storm's rain pattern.

The TRMM imagery is created at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. To make the images of rainfall, rain rates in the center of the image are created from the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR), while those in the outer swath are from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI). The rain rates are then overlaid on infrared (IR) data from the TRMM Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS).

The TRMM imagery showed that Nadine's cyclonic circulation is clearly evident in the swirling cloud elements (visible in white) as they spiral in towards the center in a counter clockwise direction. In terms of rainfall, Nadine is very asymmetric with nearly all of the rain contained in a rainband north of the center (shown in green, indicating moderate rain).Right near the center, there were some smaller areas of rain present (shown in blue, indicating light rain), but nothing significant that would indicate Nadine is preparing to intensify.

In fact, Nadine had been and continues to experience some southwesterly wind shear and dry air. Combined with marginal sea surface temperatures, it is not an environment conducive for development. However, conditions are forecast to become more favorable in a couple of days and Nadine could become a little stronger.

On Sept. 25, at 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC0, Nadine's maximum sustained winds were near 45 mph (75 kmh) with higher gusts. The National Hurricane Center expects some slow strengthening over the next two days. The center of Tropical Storm Nadine was located near latitude 32.1 north and longitude 29.6 west. Nadine is moving toward the west near 6 mph (9kmh) and a turn toward the southwest with a reduction in forward speed is expected later today, followed by a turn to the south on Wednesday, Sept. 26. Nadine's estimated minimum central pressure is 996 millibars.

Despite its relatively long life, Nadine has a ways to go before capturing the record. Hurricane Ginger was around for 27 days back in 1971, and the 1899 Puerto Rico Hurricane lasted 28 days as a tropical cyclone.

TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA.

Text credit: Steve Lang
SSAI/NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.



Sept. 24, 2012

Sunday Global Hawk flight path› View larger image
The fifth science flight of NASA's Global Hawk (green line) concluded when the aircraft landed at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Va. on Sunday, Sept. 23 after flying over Tropical Storm Nadine in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. The HS3 scientists changed the flight path (the original plan is in blue) during the GH flight to be able to overfly Nadine's center. Measurements from dropsondes found wind speeds greater than 60 knots at lower levels above the surface during that adjusted flight leg. Despite the large distance of Nadine from the U. S. East Coast, the Global Hawk was able to spend about 11 hours over the storm. The image shows the Global Hawk (red dot) returning to Wallops.
Credit: NASA Wallops
Nadine AIRS image›View larger image
This infrared image was captured by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. The image shows Tropical Storm Nadine struggling in the eastern Atlantic Ocean about 455 miles (735 km) south of the Azores Islands. The image was taken on Sept. 24 at 03:23 UTC. Purple areas indicate the strongest thunderstorms and heaviest rainfall.
Credit: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen
NASA's Global Hawk and Satellites See Tropical Storm Nadine Turning Around

Tropical Storm Nadine is turning around in two ways. When NASA's Global Hawk flew over the storm it learned that the storm was not transitioning into an extra-tropical storm. Now, NASA satellites see that Nadine is physically turning its direction, and heading back to the west-northwest and away from land.

The fifth science flight of NASA's Global Hawk concluded when the aircraft landed at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Va. on Sunday, Sept. 23 after flying over Tropical Storm Nadine in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. The Hurricane and Severe Storms Sentinel (HS3) mission scientists changed the flight path during the Global Hawk flight to be able to overfly Nadine's center.

"Measurements from dropsondes found wind speeds greater than 60 knots at lower levels above the surface during that adjusted flight leg," said Scott Braun, HS3 Mission Principal Investigator from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. "Despite the large distance of Nadine from the U. S. East Coast, the Global Hawk was able to spend about 11 hours over the storm."

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the eastern Atlantic Ocean on Sept. 24 at 03:23 UTC, and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument captured an infrared image of Tropical Storm Nadine's cloud top temperatures. The infrared data indicated the strongest thunderstorms and heaviest rainfall were to the northeast of the center of circulation. Those cloud top temperatures exceeded -63 Fahrenheit (-52 Celsius). Wind shear from the southwest has pushed the bulk of clouds and showers to the northeast.

On Friday, Sept. 24 at 11 a.m. EDT, Tropical Storm Nadine's maximum sustained winds are near 50 mph (85 kmh). Nadine was located about 440 miles (705 km) south of the Azores, near latitude 31.7 north and longitude 27.8 west. Nadine is moving west-northwest near 7 mph (11 kmh) and a gradual turn to the west and southwest is expected later.

The Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) is a five-year mission specifically targeted to investigate the processes that underlie hurricane formation and intensity change in the Atlantic Ocean basin. HS3 is motivated by hypotheses related to the relative roles of the large-scale environment and storm-scale internal processes.

Text credit: Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.













Sept. 21, 2012

GOES image of Nadine›View larger image
On Sept. 21 at 7:45 a.m. EDT, GOES-13 captured an image of Tropical Storm Nadine in the eastern Atlantic, and developing lows in the central Atlantic and eastern Pacific.
Credit: NASA/NOAA GOES Project
TRMM image of Nadine›View larger image
TRMM data on Sept. 21, 2012 showed convective rainfall near Nadine's center of circulation had ended and bands of light to moderate rainfall were wrapping around Nadine's southern side.
Credit: NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
Satellite Spots Tropical Storm Nadine and Two Developing Lows

NOAA's GOES satellite captured Tropical Storm Nadine in the eastern Atlantic, another low pressure area forming in the central Atlantic, and a developing low in the eastern Pacific. NASA's TRMM satellite noticed that the storms around Nadine's center were waning.

On Sept. 21 at 7:45 a.m. EDT, NOAA's GOES-13 satellite captured an image of Tropical Storm Nadine in the eastern Atlantic, and a developing low in the central Atlantic. Nadine is south of the frontal boundary draped across the Azores islands. NOAA's GOES-13 satellite sits in a fixed orbit over the eastern U.S. and captures continuous visible and infrared imagery of the eastern U.S. and the Atlantic Ocean. The image was created by NASA's GOES Project, located at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.

NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite flew over Tropical Storm Nadine twice on Sept. 21. The first TRMM overpass happened at 0822 UTC (4:22 a.m. EDT) and the second at 1001 UTC (6:01 a.m. EDT). TRMM can see rainfall occurring within a tropical cyclone and noticed that Tropical Storm Nadine's center of circulation has cleared of convection (rising air that forms thunderstorms) and thunderstorms since TRMM passed overhead on Sept. 20. TRMM data on Sept. 21 showed convective rainfall near Nadine's center of circulation had ended and bands of light to moderate rainfall were wrapping around Nadine's southern side. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese Space Agency, and imagery is created at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.

At 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT) on Friday, Sept. 21, 2012 Tropical Storm Nadine had maximum sustained winds were near 60 mph (95 kph). The center of Tropical Storm Nadine was located near latitude 34.1 north and longitude 27.5 west, about 270 miles (435 km) south of the Azores islands. Nadine is moving toward the south near 10 mph (17 kmh) and is expected to turn toward the southeast followed by a turn east over the weekend of Sept. 22 and 23. Although there is little change expected in Nadine's intensity over the next day or two, the storm could become post-tropical. Forecasters noted that dry air has moved into the center of Nadine's circulation, sapping the energy in the thunderstorms. In addition, sea surface temperatures are hovering near the 26.6 Celsius (80 degree Fahrenheit) threshold needed to keep a tropical cyclone alive.


The Developing Atlantic Low Pressure Area

There's a non-tropical low pressure area in the central Atlantic Ocean that was also picked up on the GOES-13 satellite image from today, Sept. 21. The low is located about 450 miles east of Bermuda and the shower and thunderstorm activity didn't change much from the previous day. This low is tracking to the north-northwest into cooler waters, which will drop its chances for developing into a sub-tropical depression. In the meantime, it has a 50 percent chance of making it to sub-tropical depression status before hitting the cooler waters.


The Developing Eastern Pacific Low Pressure Area

The low pressure area off the western coast of Mexico has a better chance of development than its Atlantic counterpart, and as a tropical depression, not a sub-tropical one. Satellite data show that the low appears to be getting organized and has a visible appearance of circulation. The low is located about 400 miles south of the southern tip of Manzanillo, Mexico and is moving to the west-northwest. The National Hurricane Center noted that conditions are ripe for development with low wind shear and warm sea surface temperatures. There's a 70 percent chance that this low could become the thirteenth tropical depression of the Eastern Pacific hurricane season. If it develops into a tropical storm over the weekend of Sept. 22 and 23, it would be named Miriam.

Text credit: Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.



Sept. 20, 2012

TRMM image of Nadine› View larger image
NASA's TRMM satellite flew over Nadine on Sept. 20 at 5:17 a.m. EDT and gathered rainfall data. TRMM saw the maximum intensity of rainfall is about 20 mm/hr (~ .8 inches). The Azores is shown being affected by a rain band from Nadine.
Credit: NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
NASA Satellites and Global Hawk See Nadine Display More Tropical Characteristics

Scientists and forecasters have been analyzing Tropical Storm Nadine using various NASA satellites as NASA's Global Hawk flew over the storm gathering information. Both the Global Hawk and NASA's TRMM satellite noticed that Nadine has continued to display tropical characteristics, indicating that it has not transitioned to an extra-tropical storm.

Forecasters noted that Nadine could have started transitioning into an extra-tropical storm, because there was little significant rainfall near Nadine's center of circulation yesterday, Sept. 19. However, satellite data and data gathered from NASA's Global Hawk during a flight in the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinels (HS3) campaign on Sept. 19 and 20, showed that wasn't happening yet.


NASA's TRMM Satellite Measures Nadine's Rainfall from Space

The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite flew over Nadine on Sept. 20 at 0917 UTC (5:17 a.m. EDT) and gathered rainfall data. "TRMM data showed that convection developed near Nadine's center, indicating that Nadine is more characteristic of a tropical cyclone than expected," said Hal Pierce, of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.

Hal overlaid the data from TRMM's Visible and InfraRed Scanner (VIRS) and TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) to create a full picture of rainfall occurring in the storm. The rainfall analysis indicated that the maximum intensity of rainfall is about 20 mm/hr (~ 0.8 inches). The Azores is shown being affected by a rain band from Nadine. Infrared satellite data revealed that convection (rising air that form the thunderstorms that make up the cyclone) around Nadine's inner-core has increased and become better organized since Sept. 19. Infrared data also indicated an eye-like feature.

TRMM is a joint mission of NASA and the Japanese Space Agency, JAXA.


Global Hawk plane taking off› View larger image
NASA's Global Hawk took off from Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Va. on Sept. 19 to conduct another science mission over Tropical Storm Nadine in the eastern Atlantic.
Credit: NASA Wallops
Flightplan for the HS3 mission over Nadine› View larger image
NASA's Global Hawk flew a "lawnmower pattern" over Tropical Storm Nadine on Sept. 19 and Sept. 20.
Credit: NASA
NASA's HS3 Global Hawk Examines Nadine

As part of the HS3 mission, NASA's Global Hawk unmanned aircraft took off from the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops, Va. at 2:42 p.m. EDT on Wednesday, Sept. 19 and crossed the Atlantic to make measurement of Tropical Storm Nadine. Nadine is currently located in the Atlantic a few hundred miles southwest of the Azores Island chain.

The science portion of the flight was completed on Sept. 20. Scientists reported that they obtained excellent data from the dropsonde system, which showed some winds on the western side of the storm still reaching 60 knots (69 mph/111 kmh) at middle levels and possibly one measurement of near 60 knots (69 mph/111 kmh) near the surface. The data suggest that Nadine is still a tropical system rather than extratropical. The National Hurricane Center mentioned the data in their morning discussion of Nadine.

The three science instruments aboard the Global Hawk performed extremely well, transmitting their data back to NASA Wallops for the scientists to analyze and discuss. The plane observed Nadine for more than 12 hours. This was the 3rd flight of the Global Hawk to investigate this tropical storm. The forecasters at the National Hurricane Center were using the data supplied by NASA's Global Hawk and noted in the discussion of Nadine at 11 a.m. EDT on Sept. 20, "The current intensity is kept at 45 knots (51.7 mph/83.3 kmh)…is in good agreement with dropsonde data from the NASA global hawk aircraft and AMSU [instrument] estimates."


Nadine's Current Status

As Nadine pulls away, a tropical storm warning was still in effect on Sept. 20 for the islands of Flores, Corvo, Faial, Pico, Sao Jorge, Graciosa, Terceira, Sao Miguel and Santa Maria in the Azores. These areas are also expected to continue dealing with rough ocean swells over the next few days.

On Sept. 20 at 11 a.m. EDT, Nadine was located 165 miles (265 km) south-southwest of Pico in the Azores Islands. It was centered near 36.2 North latitude and 29.4 West longitude. Nadine's maximum sustained winds were near 50 mph (85 kmh). Nadine was moving to the east-southeast at 10 mph (17 kmh) and had a minimum central pressure of 981 millibars.

Nadine's atmospheric steering mechanism, a strong mid-tropospheric trough (elongated area) of low pressure is expected to move to the northeast, and leave the tropical storm in a region of weaker steering winds, so Nadine could start meandering over the next couple of days.

Text credit: Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.



Sept. 19, 2012

NASA Satellite Sees Fading Rainfall in Tropical Storm Nadine

An animation of satellite observations from Sept. 16-19, 2012, shows Tropical Storm Nadine in the eastern Atlantic. NASA's HS3 Mission Global Hawk is investigating Nadine again on Sept. 19. This visualization was created by the NASA GOES Project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., using observations from NOAA's GOES-13 satellite. (Credit: NASA/NOAA GOES Project)
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Nadine › View larger image
This visible image of Tropical Storm Nadine was captured by the MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on Sept. 18, 2012, at 1505 UTC (11:05 a.m. EDT). Nadine was located near the Azores islands.
Credit: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
Nadine › View larger image
NASA's TRMM captured Nadine's rainfall rates at 6:13 a.m. EDT on Sept. 19, and showed no rainfall was occurring near Nadine's center. Rainfall around Nadine's center was falling at 20mm~0.8 inches per hour. Nadine's past and predicted path with appropriate symbols is shown overlaid in white.
Credit: SSAI/NASA, Hal Pierce
Tropical Storm Nadine continues to bring rains and winds to the Azores in the eastern Atlantic Ocean, but that rainfall continues to diminish according to data from NASA satellites. NASA's unmanned Global Hawk aircraft is also exploring the storm today, Sept. 19.

A tropical storm warning is in effect on Sept. 19 for the islands of Flores, Corvo, Faial, Pico, Sao Jorge, Graciosa, Terceira, Sao Miguel and Santa Maria in the Azores.

The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite flew over Nadine on Sept. 19 at 1013 UTC (6:13 a.m. EDT) and captured data on rainfall rates occurring within the tropical storm. TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) data showed that no rainfall was occurring near Nadine's center. The maximum precipitation intensity found in rain bands around Nadine was only about 0.8 inches (20mm) per hour. The lack of convection (rising air that forms the thunderstorms that make up the tropical cyclone) is a sign that the tropical storm is decaying or weakening.

NASA's Hurricane Severe Storms Sentinel (HS3) Mission plans to send one of the unmanned Global Hawk aircraft to investigate Nadine again on Wednesday, Sept. 19.

On Sept. 19 at 11 a.m. EDT Tropical Storm Nadine's maximum sustained winds were near 50 mph (85 kmh). Nadine was located about 270 miles (430 km) west of the Azores islands, near 37.2 north latitude and 31.8 west longitude. Nadine is moving toward the north-northeast near 5 mph (7 kmh) and is expected to start drifting to the east-southeast. Nadine's estimated minimum central pressure was 993 millibars.

According to the National Hurricane Center, early on Sept. 19, Corvo in the Azores reported sustained winds of 42 mph (68 kmh) with a gust to 58 mph (93 kmh). In addition, ocean swells continue to affect the Azores and are causing life-threatening surf conditions and rip tides.

The National Hurricane Center noted that if Nadine continues to show weaker convection, it may no longer qualify as a tropical or subtropical cyclone.

Text credit: Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.



Sept. 18, 2012

NASA Eyes Tropical Storm Nadine as Watches Go Up for Azores

Animation of satellite observations from Sept. 14-18, 2012, shows Tropical Storm Nadine in the central Atlantic. NASA's HS3 Mission Global Hawk investigated Nadine on Tropical Storm Nadine on Sept. 14 and 15. This visualization was created by the NASA GOES Project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., using observations from NOAA's GOES-13 satellite. (Credit: NASA/NOAA GOES Project)
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satellite image of Nadine › View larger image
This visible image of Tropical Storm Nadine was captured by NOAA's GOES-13 satellite on Sept. 18, 2012 at 10:45 a.m. EDT when it was nearing the Azores. Newfoundland, Canada is seen in the top left corner and the African coast is seen far right. Credit: NASA/NOAA GOES Project
flight path over Nadine › View larger image
NASA's HS3 Mission Global Hawk investigated Nadine on Tropical Storm Nadine on Sept. 14 and 15. During its 22.5 hour flight around Nadine, the Global Hawk covered more than 386,100 square miles going back and forth over the storm in what's called a "lawnmower pattern."
Credit: NASA
Tropical Storm Nadine is nearing the Azores and watches have gone up for the northwestern group of the islands. NOAA's GOES-13 satellite captured a visible image of Nadine as it continues moving northeast through the Atlantic.

On Sept. 18, 2012, a tropical storm watch is in effect for the islands of Flores and Corvo in the northwestern Azores. A tropical storm watch means that tropical storm conditions are possible within the watch area, generally within 48 hours. The Azores are made up of nine volcanic islands located about 930 miles (1,500 km) west of Lisbon, Portugal, in the North Atlantic Ocean.

NOAA's GOES-13 satellite sits in a fixed position over the eastern U.S. that allows it to monitor the Atlantic Ocean and it captured a visible image of Tropical Storm Nadine on Sept. 18, 2012 at 10:45 a.m. EDT when it was nearing the Azores. Satellite imagery shows that the strongest convection (rising air that forms the thunderstorms that make up the tropical cyclone) is located north of the center of circulation. NOAA manages the GOES series of satellites, and NASA's GOES Project at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. creates images and animations from the satellite data.

In addition to satellite observations, NASA's Hurricane Severe Storms Sentinel (HS3) Mission plans to send one of the unmanned Global Hawk aircraft to investigate Nadine again on Wednesday, Sept. 19. The Global Hawk investigated Nadine on Tropical Storm Nadine on Sept. 14 and 15. During its 22.5 hour flight around Nadine, the Global Hawk covered more than one million square kilometers (386,100 square miles) going back and forth over the storm in what's called a "lawnmower pattern."

At 11 a.m. EDT on Sept. 18, Tropical Storm Nadine had maximum sustained winds near 60 mph (95 kph), dropping from 70 mph (100 kph) just 24 hours before. It was located about 410 miles (665 km) southwest of the Azores, near 34.4 North and 32.9 East. Nadine has slowed to about half the speed it was moving on Sept. 17 and is now moving to the northeast near 8 mph (13 kph). Minimum central pressure was near 990 millibars.

As the Azores prepare for Nadine's arrival, ocean swells are expected to affect the islands within the next day or so.

Text credit: Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.



Sept. 17, 2012

satellite image of Nadine › View larger image
NASA's Terra satellite captured this true-color image of Hurricane Nadine in the Atlantic Ocean on Sept. 16 at 1345 UTC (9:45 a.m. EDT) while NASA's Global Hawk was flying around the storm.
Credit: NASA/Goddard/MODIS Rapid Response Team)
NASA's Hurricane Mission Explores Tropical Storm Nadine

NASA's Hurricane Severe Storms Sentinel (HS3) Mission is in full-swing and one of the unmanned Global Hawk aircraft investigated Tropical Storm Nadine on Sept. 14 and 15, while NASA satellites continued to obtain imagery of the storm as seen from space.

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured a true-color image of Hurricane Nadine in the Atlantic Ocean on Sept. 16 at 1345 UTC (9:45 a.m. EDT) while NASA's Global Hawk was flying around the storm. Nadine strengthened to a hurricane on Friday, Sept. 14 at 11 p.m. EDT, and weakened back to a tropical storm on Sunday, Sept. 16 at 11 p.m. EDT. Nadine's highest wind speed as a hurricane was 80 mph (130 kmh).

NASA's Global Hawk landed back at the Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Va., in the morning hours on Sept. 15 after spending a full day gathering data from Hurricane Nadine. "During the flight, Nadine strengthened from a tropical storm to a hurricane despite being hit by very strong westerly winds at upper levels and very dry air on its periphery," said Scott Braun, HS3 Mission Principal Investigator from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. Data from this flight will help scientists determine how a storm like Nadine can intensify even in the presence of seemingly adverse conditions. Nadine is currently a tropical storm.

"The Global Hawk, one of two associated with the HS3 mission, sought to determine how the structure of Nadine might change under the influence of strong vertical wind shear as it moved northward in the Atlantic, " Braun said. During its 22.5 hour flight around Nadine, the Global Hawk covered more than one million square kilometers (386,100 square miles) going back and forth over the storm in what's called a "lawnmower pattern." The Global Hawk captured data using instruments aboard and also dropping sensors called sondes into the storm. The dropsonde system ejected the small sensors tied to parachutes that drift down through the storm measuring winds, temperature and humidity.

At 11 a.m. EDT) on Sept. 17, Tropical Storm Nadine had maximum sustained winds near 70 mph (100 kmh). It was located about 585 miles southwest of the Azores, near 32.9 North and 35.3 East. Nadine is moving to the northeast near 15 mph (24 kmh). The National Hurricane Center forecasts some weakening in the next day.

Text credit: Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.



Sept. 14, 2012

NASA's TRMM Satellite Sees Nadine Still Struggling to Become a Hurricane

This flyby 3-D view of Tropical Storm Nadine was created using data from NASA's TRMM satellite. It shows that some towers near Nadine's center were reaching heights of 16km (~9.94 miles). (Credit: NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce)
› To download video

Tropical Storm Nadine's life story during the week of Sept. 11 has been about the storm's continual struggle to become a hurricane. NASA's TRMM satellite captured a look at the rainfall and towering clouds within Nadine as the system continues to deal with wind shear and dry air that are keeping it under hurricane status.

On Sept. 14 at 5 a.m. EDT Tropical Storm Nadine's maximum sustained winds were still near 70 mph (110 kmh). Nadine has been battling wind shear during the week of Sept. 11 and is moving into an area where upper-level winds are not favorable for enabling further development, which means that Nadine is expected to remain a tropical storm in the near term.

MODIS image of Nadine› View larger image
NASA's Terra satellite passed over Tropical Storm Nadine in the Atlantic Ocean on Sept. 12 at 10:10 a.m. EDT and captured this visible image of the storm.
Credit: NASA Goddard/MODIS Rapid Response Team
3D TRMM image of Nadine› View larger image
NASA's TRMM satellite passed over Tropical Storm Nadine on Sept. 13 at 6:47 a.m. EDT and saw that rain was falling at a rate of over 75mm (~3 inches) per hour in convective storms just northeast of Nadine's center of circulation.
Credit: NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
Nadine was located about 800 miles (1,290 km) northeast of the Northern Leeward Islands and about 765 miles east-southeast of Bermuda, near 26.3 north latitude and 54.1 west longitude. Nadine is moving toward the north-northwest near 15 mph (24 kmh) and is expected to turn north then northeast over the weekend of Sept. 15. Nadine's estimated minimum central pressure was 988 millibars.

Satellite imagery on Sept. 14 revealed that Nadine has grown in size. Tropical-storm-force winds now extend outward up to 230 miles (370 km) from the center. Satellite data on Sept. 14 showed Nadine looking more ragged and disorganized, as the convection (rising air that forms the thunderstorms that make up the tropical cyclone) have decreased in area and intensity around the center of circulation. In addition, the thunderstorm banding in the eastern semicircle had also diminished early on Sept. 14, indicating that Nadine was still dealing with dry air and wind shear.

The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission or TRMM satellite had a very good view of tropical storm Nadine in the central Atlantic Ocean on Sept. 13 at 1047 UTC ( 6:47 a.m. EDT). A rainfall analysis using data from TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) instruments showed that rain was falling at a rate of over 75mm (~3 inches) per hour in convective storms just northeast of Nadine's center of circulation.

At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., Hal Pierce of NASA's TRMM team created a 3-D view of Tropical Storm Nadine using data from TRMM's Precipitation Radar instrument. The 3-D view showed some towers near Nadine's center were reaching heights of 16km (~9.94 miles). Energy released by the latent heat of condensation with heavy rain in these convective towers can serve to invigorate a tropical cyclone.

NASA's TRMM satellite is like a rain gauge in space and can measure rainfall from its position in orbit. TRMM is managed by NASA and the Japanese Space Agency, JAXA.

Dry air entrainment and southwesterly wind shear have kept Nadine from becoming a hurricane. The National Hurricane Center (NHC) predicts that Nadine will overcome these negative environmental conditions and still become a hurricane.

Text credit: Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.



Sept. 13, 2012

NASA Sees Wind Shear Battering Tropical Storm Nadine

Tropical Storm Nadine is struggling against wind shear and some dry air. Infrared satellite imagery from NASA showed that Nadine's most powerful thunderstorms were being pushed east of the center.

An animation of satellite observations from Sept. 9-13, 2012, shows large Tropical Storm Leslie north of Bermuda, tiny Hurricane Michael east of Leslie and the development of Tropical Storm Nadine in the central Atlantic. This visualization was created by the NASA GOES Project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., using observations from NOAA's GOES-13 satellite. (Credit: NASA/NOAA GOES Project)
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NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Storm Nadine early on Sept. 13 and saw several factors that indicated the storm was still struggling to achieve hurricane status.

Infrared data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) that flies aboard Aqua found the strongest thunderstorms with very cold cloud temperatures (colder than -63F/-52C) were being pushed east of Nadine's center by wind shear.

infrared image of Nadine › View larger image
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Storm Nadine on Sept. 13 at 01:23 a.m. EDT. AIRS infrared data found the strongest thunderstorms (purple) with very cold cloud temperatures being pushed east of the center by wind shear.
Credit: NASA/JPL, Ed Olsen
Although Nadine is expected to reach hurricane status later on Sept.13 or Sept. 14, the storm did not yet develop an eye. The AIRS infrared image also showed that Nadine's cloud pattern was not symmetric, and a tropical cyclone needs symmetry to intensify. If the moderate southwesterly wind shear relaxes, Nadine will have a better chance of intensifying. Satellite data also suggests that intrusion of mid-level dry air, which is also sapping Nadine's strength.

At 11 a.m. EDT on Sept. 13, Tropical Storm Nadine's maximum sustained winds were just under hurricane strength, near 70 mph (110 kmh). The National Hurricane Center noted that Nadine could become a hurricane later on Sept. 13 (today). The center of Tropical Storm Nadine was located near latitude 22.6 north and longitude 52.2 west, about 770 miles (1,235 km) east-northeast of the Northern Leeward Islands. Nadine is moving toward the northwest near 16 mph (26 kmh) and the National Hurricane Center expects Nadine to turn to the north-northwest and later to the north.

Text credit: Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.



Sept. 12, 2012

diagram of HS3 flight path › View larger image
This is NASA's Global Hawk's completed flight path for Sept. 11-12 around Tropical Depression 14 (now Tropical Storm Nadine). The Global Hawk completed the second of six vertical “lawn mower cuts” on Sept. 12 and returned to NASA's Wallops Flight Facility, Va.
Credit: NASA
depiction of Nadine rainfall derived from satellite observations › View larger image
NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite passed over Tropical Storm Nadine on Sept. 12 at 1006 UTC (6:06 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates occurring in the storm. The image was a combination visible/infrared image derived from TRMM's Visible and InfraRed Scanner (VIRS) instrument and TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) instruments. Most of the tropical storm had light to moderate rainfall (green and orange), falling at a rate between .78 to 1.57 inches/20 to 40 mm per hour. The red areas (in the southeastern quadrant) indicate heavy rain falling at a rate of 2 inches/50 mm per hour (red). Dark red indicates very heavy rainfall at a rate of 50 to 74 mm (2 to 3 inches) per hour.
Credit: SSAI/NASA, Hal Pierce
satellite image of Nadine › View larger image
This visible image of Tropical Storm Nadine was captured by NOAA's GOES-13 satellite at 1445 UTC (10:45 a.m. EDT). The image shows that Nadine is developing a central dense overcast and bands of thunderstorms all around the storm.
Credit: NASA's GOES Project
infrared image of Nadine › View larger image
The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument onboard Aqua captured an infrared image of Tropical Storm Nadine on Sept. 12 at 0441 UTC (12:41 a.m. EDT). The image revealed that Nadine developed a signature comma shape. The AIRS image also showed that Nadine had a large area of strong thunderstorms surrounding the center of circulation and in a band south of the center, where cloud top temperatures exceeded the -63 Fahrenheit/-52 Celsius threshold, indicating strong thunderstorms with heavy rainfall.
Credit: NASA/JPL, Ed Olsen
NASA Global Hawk and Satellites Attend Tropical Storm Nadine's 'Birth'

Tropical Depression 14 strengthened into Tropical Storm Nadine while NASA's Hurricane Severe Storm Sentinel Mission, or HS3 mission, was in full-swing and NASA's Global Hawk aircraft captured the event. While the Global Hawk was gathering data over the storm, NASA satellites were also analyzing Nadine from space.

NASA's Global Hawk landed back at Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Va., after spending a full day gathering data from the 14th Atlantic Tropical Depression that strengthened into Tropical Storm Nadine during the morning hours of Sept. 12.

The Global Hawk, one of two associated with the HS3 mission, sought to determine whether hot, dry and dusty air associated with the Saharan air layer was being ingested into the storm. This Saharan air typically crosses westward over the Atlantic Ocean and potentially affects tropical cyclone formation and intensification. During its 26 hour flight around Nadine, the Global Hawk covered more than 1 million square kilometers (386,100 square miles) going back and forth over the storm in what's called a "lawnmower pattern." The Global Hawk captured data using instruments aboard and also dropping sensors called sondes into the storm. The dropsonde system ejected the small sensors tied to parachutes that drift down through the storm measuring winds, temperature and humidity.

NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite passed over Tropical Storm Nadine on Sept. 12 at 1006 UTC (6:06 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates occurring in the storm. Visible and infrared data were combined from TRMM's Visible and InfraRed Scanner (VIRS) instrument and TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) instruments to create an image of Nadine's rainfall. Most of the tropical storm had light to moderate rainfall, falling at a rate between .78 to 1.57 inches/20 to 40 mm per hour. In the southeastern quadrant TRMM data revealed heavy rain was falling at a rate of 2 inches/50 mm per hour. The TRMM data was processed by the TRMM Team at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. TRMM is managed by both NASA and the Japanese Space Agency, JAXA.

NOAA's GOES-13 satellite provided a visible image of Tropical Storm Nadine at 1445 UTC (10:45 a.m. EDT). The image showed that Nadine was developing a central dense overcast and bands of thunderstorms all around the storm. Like the TRMM image, the GOES image was created at NASA Goddard, but made by the NASA GOES Project.

NASA's Aqua satellite also captured an image of Nadine. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument aboard Aqua captured an infrared image of Tropical Storm Nadine on Sept. 12 at 0441 UTC (12:41 a.m. EDT) that was created at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif.

The AIRS image revealed that Nadine developed a signature comma shape. The AIRS image also showed that Nadine had a large area of strong thunderstorms surrounding the center of circulation and in a band south of the center, where cloud top temperatures exceeded the -63 Fahrenheit/-52 Celsius threshold, indicating strong thunderstorms with heavy rainfall, confirming the data from NASA's TRMM satellite.

On Sept. 11 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT), Tropical Storm Nadine had maximum sustained winds near 60 mph (95 kmh). The National Hurricane Center has forecast additional strengthening and expects Nadine to reach hurricane strength some time tonight, Sept. 12, or on Thursday, Sept. 13. Tropical storm force winds extend outward up to 115 miles (185 km) from the center, making Nadine about 230 miles (370 km) in diameter.

The center of Tropical Storm Nadine was located near latitude 19.1 north and longitude 47.6 west, about 940 miles (1,510 kilometers) east-northwest of the Lesser Antilles. Nadine is moving toward the west-northwest near 15 mph (24 kmh) and the National Hurricane Center expects Nadine to turn toward the northwest followed by a turn toward the north-northwest Thursday night. Nadine's estimated minimum central pressure is 997 millibars. Nadine is expected to remain in a favorable (weak) upper-level wind environment for the next couple of days.

The HS3 mission targets the processes that underlie hurricane formation and intensity change. The data collected will help scientists decipher the relative roles of the large-scale environment and internal storm processes that shape these systems.

HS3 is supported by several NASA centers including Wallops; Goddard; Dryden; Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif.; Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala.; and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. HS3 also has collaborations with partners from government agencies and academia.

HS3 is an Earth Venture mission funded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. Earth Venture missions are managed by NASA's Earth System Science Pathfinder Program at the agency's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va. The HS3 mission is managed by the Earth Science Project Office at NASA's Ames Research Center.

Text credit: Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.



Sept. 11, 2012

visible light image of Tropical Depression 14 over the Atlantic › View larger image
This visible image of System 91L was captured by NOAA's GOES-13 satellite at 1145 UTC (7:45 a.m. EDT).
Credit: NASA's GOES Project
3D heat map of Tropical Depression 14 › View larger image
On Sept. 10, the TRMM satellite showed System 91L was getting organized and that convective storms were dropping heavy rain to the northwest and northeast of the center of the circulation. Those thunderstorms northeast of the center were reaching heights of about 13km (~8.1 miles).
Credit: NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
NASA's Global Hawk Investigating Atlantic Tropical Depression 14

NASA's Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) airborne mission sent an unmanned Global Hawk aircraft this morning to study newborn Tropical Depression 14 in the central Atlantic Ocean that seems primed for further development. The Global Hawk left NASA's Wallops Flight Facility on Wallops Island, Va., this morning for a planned 26-hour flight to investigate the depression.

NASA's latest hurricane science field campaign began on Sept. 7 when the Global Hawk flew over Hurricane Leslie in the Atlantic Ocean. HS3 marks the first time NASA is flying Global Hawks from the U.S. East Coast.

According to Chris Naftel, project manager of NASA's Global Hawk program at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards Air Base, Calif., the Global Hawk aircraft took off at 7:06 a.m. EDT and headed for Tropical Depression 14, which at the time of take-off, was still a developing low pressure area called System 91L.

At 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT), Tropical Depression 14 was located near 16.3 North latitude and 43.1 West longitude, about 1,210 miles (1,950 km) east of the Lesser Antilles. The depression had maximum sustained winds near 35 mph. It was moving to the west near 10 mph (17 kmh) and had a minimum central pressure of 1006 millibars.

The National Hurricane Center expects Tropical Depression 14 to strengthen into a tropical storm over the next 48 hours, and turn to the northwest.

On Sept. 10, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite passed over Tropical Depression 14, when it was known as low pressure System 91L and data from TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) were used to create a rainfall analysis. The data was overlaid on a combination infrared and visible image from TRMM's Visible and InfraRed Scanner (VIRS) and showed that System 91L was getting organized and that convective storms reaching heights of about 13km (~8.1 miles) were dropping heavy rain to the northwest and northeast of the center of the circulation.

The HS3 mission targets the processes that underlie hurricane formation and intensity change. The data collected will help scientists decipher the relative roles of the large-scale environment and internal storm processes that shape these systems.

HS3 is supported by several NASA centers including Wallops; Goddard; Dryden; Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif.; Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala.; and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. HS3 also has collaborations with partners from government agencies and academia.

HS3 is an Earth Venture mission funded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. Earth Venture missions are managed by NASA's Earth System Science Pathfinder Program at the agency's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va. The HS3 mission is managed by the Earth Science Project Office at NASA's Ames Research Center.

Text credit: Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.