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Hurricane Season 2012: Tropical Storm Bud (Eastern Pacific Ocean)
05.29.12
 
This image of Hurricane Bud was taken from the MODIS instrument onboard NASA's Aqua satellite on May 25, 2012 › View larger image
The day before Bud made landfall it was at hurricane status. This image of Hurricane Bud was taken from the MODIS instrument onboard NASA's Aqua satellite on May 25, 2012 at 2025 UTC (4:25 p.m. EDT/1:25 p.m. PDT -U.S.). What appears to be Bud's eye is west of the coast.
Credit: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
This image of Hurricane Bud was taken from the AIRS instrument onboard NASA's Aqua satellite on May 25, 2012 › View larger image
This image of Hurricane Bud was taken from the AIRS instrument onboard NASA's Aqua satellite on May 25, 2012 at 2025 UTC (4:25 p.m. EDT/1:25 p.m. PDT -U.S.). In visible imagery, what appeared to be Bud's eye is west of the coast, but some strong thunderstorms with heavy rainfall were raining over the Mexican state of Jalisco. Those areas had high, cold cloud top temperatures colder than -63 Fahrenheit (-52 Celsius) and appear in purple on the image.
Credit: NASA/JPL, Ed Olsen
Western Coastal Mexico: This Bud Was for You

Just before Tropical Storm Bud made landfall on the western coast of Mexico in the state of Jalisco, it was downgraded to a tropical depression. Two instruments on NASA's Aqua satellite provided visible and infrared imagery that showed heavy rain was falling on coastal areas, even though the center was over open water on May 25.

The day before Bud made landfall it was at hurricane status. This image of Hurricane Bud was taken from the MODIS instrument onboard NASA's Aqua satellite on May 25, 2012 at 2025 UTC (4:25 p.m. EDT/1:25 p.m. PDT -U.S.). The center of the tropical cyclone was west of the coast at the time Aqua flew overhead.

At the same time, another instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite called the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) captured an infrared image of the storm's cloud top temperatures. In MODIS visible imagery, what appeared to be Bud's eye is west of the coast, but the AIRS infrared imagery showed some strong thunderstorms with heavy rainfall were raining over the Mexican state of Jalisco. Those areas had high, cold cloud top temperatures colder than -63 Fahrenheit (-52 Celsius) and were dropping rainfall at a rate of 2 inches/50 mm per hour.

On May 26 at 0900 UTC (2 a.m. PDT), Bud was downgraded from a tropical storm to a tropical depression. It was only 5 miles (8.0 km) south of Cabo Corrientes, (Jalisco state) Mexico, near 20.3 North and 105.7 West. Bud's maximum sustained winds had dropped to 30 knots (34.5 mph/55.5 kph) and it was moving to the north at 5 knots (5.7 mph/9.3 kph).

Bud made landfall in Mexico and quickly weakened. Bud dropped about another inch or two of rainfall along the southwestern coasts of the states of Michoaca, Colima, Jalisco and southern Nayarit. It continued moving north along the coast at Cabo Corrientes and dissipated over this past weekend.

Text Credit: Rob Gutro
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.












May 25, 2012

NASA's TRMM satellite passed above Hurricane Bud on May 25 at 12:49 a.m. EDT/U.S. and it saw a large area of moderate to heavy rainfall with rates of over 30mm/hr (~1.2 inches). › View larger image
NASA's TRMM satellite passed above Hurricane Bud on May 25 at 12:49 a.m. EDT/U.S. and it saw a large area of moderate to heavy rainfall with rates of over 30mm/hr (~1.2 inches). Bud's past and predicted locations are shown overlaid in white. Heavy rainfall is indicated in red, falling at 2 inches/50 mm/hr.
Credit: NASA
This visible image of Hurricane Bud was taken by the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite on May 24, 2012 at 18:15 UTC (2:15 p.m. EDT/U.S.). ›View larger image
This visible image of Hurricane Bud was taken by the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite on May 24, 2012 at 18:15 UTC (2:15 p.m. EDT/U.S.).
Credit: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response
NASA Sees Hurricane Bud Threaten Western Mexico's Coast

NASA satellites are providing rainfall, temperature, pressure, visible and infrared data to forecasters as Hurricane Bud is expected to make a quick landfall in western Mexico this weekend before turning back to sea. NASA's TRMM and Aqua satellites have been flying over Bud as it nears the Mexican coast.

NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite passed above Hurricane Bud early this morning, May 25 at 0429 UTC (12:49 a.m. EDT/U.S.). A large area of moderate to heavy rainfall with rates of over 30mm/hr (~1.2 inches) was revealed in Bud by TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) instrument. The rainfall analysis was overlaid on an enhanced infrared image derived from TRMM's Visible and InfraRed Scanner (VIRS) and created at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. Bud's past and predicted locations are shown overlaid in white. Heavy rainfall from hurricane Bud's slow movement may result in severe flooding and dangerous landslides as it moves over Mexico's rugged coastal terrain.

This visible image of Hurricane Bud was taken by the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite on May 24, 2012 at 18:15 UTC (2:15 p.m. EDT/U.S.) and shows Bud's eye. Bud's outer bands were already affecting coastal Mexico yesterday.

On May 25, 2012 at 11 a.m. EDT, Bud was still a category two hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale with maximum sustained winds near 100 mph (160 kph). It was moving to the north at 7 mph (11 kph) and had a minimum central pressure of 975 millibars. Bud was closing in on the coast and was near 18.4 North and 105.6 West, about 95 miles (150 km) west-southwest of Manzanillo, Mexico.

Hurricane-force winds extend outward up to 35 miles (55 km) from the center, and tropical-storm-force winds extend outward up to 115 miles (185 km). Manzanillo was experiencing rain with sustained winds near 17 mph (27.3 kph) from the southeast at 11 a.m. EDT/U.S. on Friday, May 25.

Several watches and warnings are in effect. They include: A hurricane warning is in effect from Manzanillo to Cabo Corrientes; A tropical storm warning is in effect from Punto San Telmo west to Manzanillo; A hurricane watch is in effect from Punto San Telmo west to Manzanillo; and a tropical storm watch is in effect from Cabo Corrientes to San Blas.

Bud is expected to bring a lot of rainfall as it continues to head for a landfall. The National Hurricane Center expects total rain accumulations of 6 to 10 inches (152 to 254 mm) along the southwestern coast of Mexico with isolated maximum amounts of 15 inches (381 mm). As always with heavy rainfall in this region, life-threatening flash floods and mudslides will be possible.

Along the coast a dangerous storm surge is expected to produce significant coastal flooding near and to the east of where the center of bud makes landfall. In addition, the southern and southwestern coasts of Mexico are expected to experience dangerous swells, surf and rip currents.

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) forecasters expect Bud to make landfall and then turnaround and head back out into the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Once Bud begins interacting with the coast, the Rapid decay is expected as western Mexico's high terrain separates the circulation of the storm. Bud is forecast to become a remnant low in 72 hours and dissipate in 96 hours.

Text Credit: Rob Gutro
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.



May 24, 2012

MODIS image of Hurricane Bud from May 23, 2012 › View larger image
NASA's Aqua satellite captured this visible image of now Hurricane Bud off the southwestern coast of Mexico on May 23 at 2035 UTC (1:35 PDT). Notice that the outer fringes of Bud's clouds are brushing the Mexican coast, despite the center being hundreds of miles offshore. The brighter white clouds indicate higher clouds and stronger thunderstorms near the center and banding on the eastern side of the storm.
Credit: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

AIRS image of Hurricane Bud from May 23, 2012 › View larger image
Infrared imagery from NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument onboard NASA's Aqua satellite was taken on May 24 at 0847 UTC (4:47 a.m. EDT) shows a large area of high, cold cloud tops around Bud's eye. The strongest storms appear in purple and have a cloud top temperature colder than -63F (-52C). Credit: NASA/JPL, Ed Olsen
NASA Satellites Feed Forecasters Information as Bud Becomes a Hurricane

Bud has now become the first hurricane of the eastern Pacific Hurricane Season, as NASA visible and infrared satellite imagery revealed an organized structure of spiraling thunderstorms around the eye. Watches and warnings are already in effect for southwestern Mexico as Bud nears.

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument onboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured a visible image of Hurricane Bud off the southwestern coast of Mexico on May 23 at 2035 UTC (1:35 PDT) before it reached hurricane status. The image showed the outer fringes of Bud's clouds are brushing the Mexican coast, despite the center being hundreds of miles offshore. Brighter white clouds indicate higher clouds and stronger thunderstorms near the center and banding on the eastern side of the storm.

Imagery from NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument onboard NASA's Aqua satellite was taken on May 24 at 0847 UTC (4:47 a.m. EDT) shows a large area of high, cold cloud tops around Bud's eye. The strongest storms appear in purple and have a cloud top temperature colder than -63F (-52C).

A tropical storm warning is in effect for the coast of Mexico from Punta San Telmo Westward to Cabo Corrientes, and a hurricane watch is in effect for the coast of Mexico from Punta San Telmo Westward to Cabo Corrientes.

At 11 a.m. EDT (8 a.m. PDT) on May 24, Bud has sustained winds near 105 mph (165 kph) with higher gusts. Bud is a category two hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale. The National Hurricane Center expects additional strengthening today before Bud begins weakening early Friday. Those hurricane force winds stretch out 25 miles (35 km) from the center, while the tropical storm-force winds extend up to 105 miles (165 km) from the center.

Bud was located about 280 miles (445 km) southwest of Manzanillo, Mexico, near latitude 15.7 north and longitude 106.7 west and is moving north-northeast near 8 mph (13 kph). Forecasters expect Bud to slow down.

The center of Bud will be near or just offshore of the southwestern coast of Mexico late Friday and Saturday, and is not expected to make landfall, but will cause a lot of problems with heavy rain, strong winds, and dangerous surf before it turns around and heads back into the open waters of the eastern Pacific.

Forecasters at the National Hurricane Center said that means "rainfall totals of 4 to 6 inches, locally up to 10 inches are expected in the states of Michoaca, Colima, Jalisco and southern Nayarit. Life threatening flashfloods and mudslides are possible." Bud is already stirring up the surf along the southwestern Mexico coasts today, and will cause life-threatening surf conditions and swells.

Text Credit: Rob Gutro
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.



May 23, 2012

image of Bud derived from satellite data › View larger image
The TRMM satellite passed over Bud on May 22, 2012 at 6:43 p.m. EDT. This 3-D image from TRMM shows that some of the strong convective towers near Bud's center were taller than 15km (~9.3 miles).
Credit: NASA/TRMM, Hal Pierce
image of Bud derived from satellite data › View larger image
The TRMM satellite passed over Bud on May 22, 2012 at 6:43 p.m. EDT and showed Bud contained bands of very heavy rainfall near the center of circulation. Heavy rain, falling at a rate of 2 inches/50 mm per hour appears in red. Light to moderate rainfall was falling at a rate between .78 inches and 1.57 inches per hour (20 to 40 mm).
Credit: NASA/TRMM, Hal Pierce
NASA's TRMM Satellite Sees Heavy Rainfall in Tropical Storm Bud

Tropical Storm Bud is dropping heavy rainfall, and appears to be intensifying. NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite has been monitoring rainfall within the storm, and has watched it become heavier over the last day - a sign the storm is intensifying.

The TRMM satellite had an excellent view of tropical storm Bud on May 22, 2012 at 2243 UTC 6:43 p.m. EDT/2:43 p.m. PDT). TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) data shows that Bud contained bands of very heavy rainfall near the center of circulation. TRMM revealed that some of these intense storms were dropping rainfall at a rate greater than 50mm/hr (~2 inches).

A 3-D image from TRMM's PR shows that some of the strong convective towers near Bud's center were taller than 15km (~9.3 miles). TRMM PR found reflectivity values of over 58.050 dBz indicating that very heavy rainfall was occurring.

On May 23, at 1500 UTC (8 a.m. PDT) Tropical Storm Bud's maximum sustained winds were near 65 mph (100 kph). It was located near latitude 13.4 North and longitude 107.6 West, about 445 miles (715 km) south-southwest of Manzanillo, Mexico. Bud is headed northwest near 9 mph (15 kph) and is expected to slow down, according to the National Hurricane Center (NHC).

The NHC also forecasts that Bud will slow and turn to the north-northeast by Friday, May 25. NHC stated that Bud could become a hurricane later today (May 23) or tonight.

Text Credit: Rob Gutro
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.













May 22, 2012

This infrared image from NASA's GOES-13 satellite shows newly developed Tropical Storm Bud off the southwestern coast of Mexico in the eastern Pacific. › View larger image
This infrared image from NASA's GOES-13 satellite shows newly developed Tropical Storm Bud off the southwestern coast of Mexico in the eastern Pacific. The image was taken at 1200 UTC (8 a.m. EDT/5 a.m. PDT) and shows a well-developed tropical storm. Baja California is seen in the top center part of the image.
Credit: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

This infrared image of Tropical Storm Bud was captured from the AIRS instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite on May 22 at 4:59 a.m. EDT, and shows a large area of very strong thunderstorms mostly west of the center of circulation. › View larger image
This infrared image of Tropical Storm Bud was captured from the AIRS instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite on May 22 at 4:59 a.m. EDT, and shows a large area of very strong thunderstorms mostly west of the center of circulation. The purple color indicates the coldest cloud top temperatures, and strongest thunderstorms with the heaviest rainfall.
Credit: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen
NASA Sees Eastern Pacific's Second Tropical Storm Form

On May 21, NASA satellites were monitoring Tropical Depression 02E in the eastern Pacific Ocean, and 24 hours later it strengthened into the second tropical storm of the season. Tropical Storm Bud was captured by NOAA's GOES-13 satellite on May 22, and appears to be well-formed.

Tropical Storm Bud isn't going to stop there, however. According to the forecasters at the National Hurricane Center, Bud is expected to become a hurricane because of light to moderate wind shear and warm sea surface temperatures.

On May 22 at 0900 UTC (2 a.m. PDT/5 a.m. EDT), Tropical Storm Bud's maximum sustained winds were up to 40 mph (65 kph). Bud was centered about 515 miles (825 km) south of Zihuatenejo, Mexico, near 10.4 North and 103.0 West. Bud was moving to the west-northwest near 12 mph (19 kph).

An infrared satellite image of Tropical Storm Bud was captured from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument onboard NASA's Aqua satellite on May 22, and showed a large area of very strong thunderstorms located mostly to the west of the center of circulation. The infrared image depicts that area with very cold cloud top temperatures that exceed -63 Fahrenheit (-52 Celsius). Microwave satellite imagery indicates that Bud's center of circulation is near the eastern edge of the large area of convection and thunderstorms. That's an indication of the moderate wind shear blowing from the east and pushing those thunderstorms west of the center.

Forecasters at the National Hurricane Center expect that Bud may become a hurricane by Wednesday, May 23 and begin curving to the northeast and toward the mainland of Mexico. Residents of western Mexico need to watch the progress of this tropical cyclone.

Text Credit: Rob Gutro
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.











May 21, 2012

TRMM data revealed a hot tower over 15 kilometers (9.3 miles) high in Tropical Depression 02E. › View larger image
When NASA's TRMM satellite passed over TD02E on May 21, 2012 at 08:50 UTC (4:50 a.m. EDT), data revealed a hot tower over 15 kilometers (9.3 miles) high. TRMM also measured rainfall within the tropical depression, and found that isolated areas of heavy rain (falling at a rate of 2 inches/50 mm per hour (appearing in red)) were seen in the northwestern quadrant of the storm. Light to moderate rainfall was falling at a rate between .78 inches and 1.57 inches per hour (20 to 40 mm).
Credit: NASA/TRMM, Hal Pierce
NASA Sees a "Hot Tower" in Newborn E. Pacific Tropical Depression 2E

"Hot Tower" rain clouds within a tropical cyclone indicate that the storm is going to intensify, and that's what NASA's TRMM satellite spotted in newborn Tropical Depression 2E (TD2E) in the eastern Pacific Ocean.

A "hot tower" is a rain cloud that reaches at least to the top of the troposphere, the lowest layer of the atmosphere. It extends approximately nine miles (14.5 km) high in the tropics. These towers are called "hot" because they rise to such altitude due to the large amount of latent heat. Water vapor releases this latent heat as it condenses into liquid. NASA scientists, using data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, found that a tropical cyclone with a hot tower in its eyewall was twice as likely to intensify within the next six hours, than a cyclone that lacked a tower. The "eyewall" is the ring of clouds around a cyclone's central eye.

When NASA's TRMM satellite passed over TD02E on May 21, 2012 at 08:50 UTC (4:50 a.m. EDT), data revealed a hot tower over 15 kilometers (9.3 miles) high. That's an indication that the storm is going to intensify, and that's one factor that forecasters at the National Hurricane Center are using in their forecast, which calls for TD02E to become a tropical storm later in the day on May 21.

TRMM also measured rainfall within the tropical depression, and found that isolated areas of heavy rain (falling at a rate of 2 inches/50 mm per hour) were seen in the northwestern quadrant of the storm. Light-to-moderate rainfall was falling throughout the rest of the storm.

At 5 a.m. EDT on May 21, TD02E had maximum sustained winds near 35 mph. It was centered about 520 miles (835 km) south of Acapulco, Mexico, near 9.4 North and 100.1 West. It was moving to the west near 6 mph (9 kph) and had a minimum central pressure of 1005 millibars.

The forecasters at the National Hurricane center predict TD 02E will turn to the west-northwest and northwest, while speeding up. TD02E is also expected to strengthen into a tropical storm, and into a hurricane later in the week. Residents of west central Mexico should monitor the progress of this storm.

Text Credit: Rob Gutro
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.