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Hurricane Season 2011: Tropical Storm Muifa (Western North Pacific Ocean)
08.10.11
 
August 10, 2011

NASA Compiles Rainfall Rates and Total Rainfall from Typhoon Muifa

Data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite was used to create images of rainfall from Typhoon Muifa as it moved through the western North Pacific. TRMM data was used to create the accumulated rainfall and the rate in which rain fell throughout Muifa's lifetime.

Typhoon Muifa accumulated rainfall track

This image displays the accumulated rainfall for Typhoon Muifa from 00Z on June 28 to 03Z August 8, 2011 ("Z" designates UTC/GMT), using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis Real-Time (TMPA-RT) data plotted with the NASA Giovanni system. Muifa traveled north and then northwest during its lifetime. This analysis shows that Muifa produced more rain as a tropical storm while directly east of the Philippine islands than as a Category 3 or Category 4 typhoon northeast of the Philippines. Muifa weakened considerably before making landfall in North Korea. The units are in millimeters of rain. Credit: NASA/James Acker

Typhoon Muifa rain rate track

This image displays the rain rate for Typhoon Muifa from 00Z on June 28 to 03Z August 8, 2011 ("Z" designates UTC/GMT), using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis Real-Time (TMPA-RT) data plotted with the NASA Giovanni system. Muifa's highest rain rates occurred when it was still a tropical storm, but were also high when it intensified to Category 3 and 4 as it moved north. This observation shows that strong typhoons and hurricanes in terms of wind speed do not necessarily produce more rain than tropical storms. The units are in millimeters of rain per hour. [The high rain rate observed west of the Philippines was from a different tropical weather system.] Credit: NASA/James Acker

James Acker, NASA GES DISC
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center


August 9, 2011

Remnants of Tropical Storm Muifa  raining on China on August 8, 2011 at 1705 UTC 1:05 p.m. EDT. › View larger image
The AIRS instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite saw the remnants of Tropical Storm Muifa (light blue) raining on northeastern China on August 8, 2011 at 1705 UTC 1:05 p.m. EDT. Muifa's outer bands of thunderstorms (blue) had already spread into northeastern China.
Credit: NASA/JPL, Ed Olsen
NASA Satellite Sees Tropical Storm Muifa's Remnants Dissipating Over China

Typhoon Muifa plowed through the Yellow Sea and made landfall over North Korea at midnight local time on August 9 and satellite imagery from NASA shows the system is dissipating today over eastern China.

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite saw the remnants of Tropical Storm Muifa raining on northeastern China on August 8, 2011 at 1705 UTC (1:05 p.m. EDT). Muifa's outer bands of thunderstorms had already spread into northeastern China at that time.

Muifa brought heavy rains, gusty winds and heavy coastal surf to western North Korea, western South Korea and eastern China.

The Voice of America reported there were at least 15 deaths associated with Muifa in North and South Korea, while crop damage totaled in the millions of dollars. Authorities in China reported that Muifa was responsible for the destruction of 600 homes and caused $480 million in damage.

Muifa's remnants continue to move inland and are dissipating over northeastern China.

Text credit: Rob Gutro,NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.



August 8, 2011

MODIS visible image of Tropical Storm Muifa moving through the Yellow Sea on August 6 at10:50 p.m. EDT. › View larger image
NASA's Aqua satellite captured this visible image of Tropical Storm Muifa moving through the Yellow Sea on August 6 at10:50 p.m. EDT. Muifa's edges were affecting China (left) and South Korea (top right).
Credit: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response
AIRS saw strong thunderstorms around the eye of Muifa on August 6, 2011 at 1707 UTC › View larger image
The AIRS instrument on NASA"s Aqua satellite saw strong thunderstorms around the eye of Muifa on August 6, 2011 at 1707 UTC 1:07 p.m. EDT. The largest area of the highest, coldest, cloud tops, where thunderstorms were the strongest (purple) and the heaviest rain was falling was east of the center.
Credit: NASA/JPL, Ed Olsen
AIRS saw a very small area of the strongest thunderstorms (dark blue) around Muifa's center. › View larger image
The AIRS instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite saw a very small area of the strongest thunderstorms (dark blue) around Muifa's center on August 8, 2011 at 505 UTC 1:05 a.m. EDT as it was moving north through Korea Bay in the Yellow Sea. Muifa's outer bands of thunderstorms (blue) were already affecting northeastern China and North Korea. Muifa's center is about to make landfall in East China's Shandong province. Dark orange areas indicate the heat from the land.
Credit: NASA/JPL, Ed Olsen
NASA Satellites See Tropical Storm Muifa Taking Up the Yellow Sea

Tropical Storm Muifa is filling up the Yellow Sea on NASA satellite imagery as it continues moving north today to a landfall in East China's Shandong province. NASA's Aqua satellite captured visible and infrared imagery that shows Muifa's cloud cover stretches across the Yellow Sea, from China to the west to South and North Korea to the east.

At 18:25 UTC 2:25 p.m. EDT, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite captured a visible image of Tropical Storm Muifa moving through the Yellow Sea on August 6 at10:50 p.m. EDT. Muifa's edges were affecting China and South Korea as it continues its northward track.

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument on NASA"s Aqua satellite saw strong thunderstorms around the eye of Muifa on August 6, 2011 at 1707 UTC 1:07 p.m. EDT. The largest area of the highest, coldest (colder than -63 Fahrenheit/-52 Celsius), cloud tops, where thunderstorms were the strongest and the heaviest rain was falling was east of the center.

AT 0900 UTC (5 a.m. EDT) on August 8, 2011, Tropical Storm Muifa's center was near 38.7 North and 124.0 East about 160 nautical miles west-northwest of Seoul, South Korea. Muifa had maximum sustained wind near 50 knots (57 mph/92 kmh). It was moving to the north near 12 knots (14 mph/22 kmh), north through the Yellow Sea. As Muifa continues to track through the Yellow Sea, it is generating very rough surf along coastal areas on both sides, including eastern China, South Korea and North Korea. Sea level heights have been estimated near 28 feet (8.5 meters).

Early on August 8, China.org reported that coastal areas of the city of Qingdao is being is already receiving high waves up to 16 feet (5 meters) high.

Muifa will make landfall in East China's Shandong province today.

Text credit: Rob Gutro,NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.
































August 5, 2011

MODIS captured Muifa and Merbok in the western Pacific at 4:35 UTC (12:35 a.m. EDT) on August 5, 2011. › View larger image
NASA's Aqua satellite captured Typhoon Muifa and Tropical Storm Merbok in the western Pacific at 4:35 UTC (12:35 a.m. EDT) on August 5, 2011. Muifa is almost twice as large as Merbok.
Credit: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response
AIRS captured Typhoon Muifa in the western North Pacific Ocean on August 5 at 17:29 UTC (1:29 p.m. EDT) › View larger image
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Typhoon Muifa in the western North Pacific Ocean on August 5 at 17:29 UTC (1:29 p.m. EDT) This infrared image was taken from the AIRS instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite and it revealed a large eye surrounded by very cold cloud top temperatures (purple) from strong thunderstorms.
Credit: NASA/JPL, Ed Olsen
NASA Sees Typhoon Muifa Almost Twice as Big as Tropical Storm Merbok

In one image, NASA's Aqua satellite captured two tropical cyclones in the western North Pacific today, Tropical Storm Merbok and the large Typhoon Muifa. NASA Satellite imagery shows that Muifa is almost twice as big as Merbok.

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured Typhoon Muifa near Okinawa, Japan and Tropical Storm Merbok, farther east in the western Pacific at 4:35 UTC (12:35 a.m. EDT) on August 5, 2011. By having the storms side-by-side in one image, it is much easier to see how Merbok is a lot less organized than the more powerful Muifa. Muifa also has an eye, although cloud-filled, whereas Merbok does not.

On August 5, Typhoon Muifa's maximum sustained winds were near 80 knots, and typhoon-force winds extended out to 70 miles from the center. Tropical storm-force winds went much farther, out to 220 miles from the center, making Muifa a monster storm of about 440 miles in diameter.

Muifa was only 45 nautical miles southwest of Kadena Air Force Base, Japan this morning (August 5) at 5 a.m. EDT, pounding the island with heavy rains, typhoon-force winds and very rough surf. Its center was near 25.8 North and 127.2 East and it was moving to the northwest near 7 knots (8 mph). By 8 a.m. EDT, Muifa's center had moved past Kadena and was located 55 nautical miles west-southwest of the island.

The maximum significant wave heights are reaching 36 feet creating extremely hazardous seas. Muifa is expected to recurve to the northwest or north and skirt the east coast of China and make landfall in Korea.

Tropical storm Merbok is not a threat to land areas, and is moving around in the open waters of the North Pacific. It is located 675 miles west-northwest of Wake Island near 26.8N and 155.3E. Merbok's maximum sustained winds are near 50 knots, and tropical-storm force winds extend 120 miles from the center, making the storm 240 miles in diameter. Merbok is moving to the north-northwest at 8 knots and creating 21-foot high waves.

Merbok is strengthening as it moves northwest and is expected to make typhoon strength before weakening and curving northeast.

Text credit: Rob Gutro,NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.



August 4, 2011

MODIS image of Typhoon Muifa taken on August 4 at 2:20 UTC. › View larger image
This image of Typhoon Muifa was taken from the MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite on August 4 at 2:20 UTC as it was approaching Kadena Air Force Base, Japan. Kadena is covered by the northwestern fringes of Muifa's clouds in this image.
Credit: NASA MODIS Rapid Response Team
NASA Sees Typhoon Muifa Moving Through the Philippine Sea

NASA's Terra satellite captured a stunning image of Typhoon Muifa moving through the Philippine Sea on August 4 at 2:20 UTC. Muifa is expected to bring Kadena Air Force Base rough surf, heavy rainfall and gusty winds as it passes by today.

At 1500 UTC on August 4, Muifa had maximum sustained winds near 90 knots (103 mph) and was located about 100 nautical miles south-southeast of Kadena Air Force Base, Japan. It was near 25.0 North and 128.3 East and moving to the west-northwest at 6 knots (7 mph).

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument aboard Terra captured an image of Muifa that showed that clouds were filling in the eye. At the time of the image, Muifa's northwestern edge was already over Kadena Air Force Base.

Infrared imagery from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder instrument (that also flies aboard NASA's Terra satellite) showed that the eye had filled in with clouds, but there was still banding of thunderstorms around the center of the storm.

Muifa is expected to graze eastern China and brush by Shanghai over the next several days as it moves to the west-northwest.

Text credit: Rob Gutro,NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.



August 2, 2011

Typhoon MUIFA Heading Toward Okinawa

TRMM image of Typhoon Muifa on August 1, 2011 at 1320 UTC.
› View larger image
Credit: NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce

MUIFA was a super typhoon with wind speeds of 140 kts (~161 mph) on 30 August but wind speeds had dropped to about 110 kts (~127 mph) when it was seen by the TRMM satellite on 1 August 2011 at 1320 UTC. This TRMM orbit revealed that MUIFA had a double eyewall indicating that the typhoon was undergoing eyewall replacement with a larger eyewall shown forming farther out from a smaller inner eyewall. Muifa is expected to still be a powerful typhoon on 4 August 2011 as it passes directly over the Japanese island of Okinawa.



AIRS infrared image of Muifa was captured on Aug. 2 at3:59 UTC › View larger image
This AIRS infrared image was captured on Aug. 2 at 3:59 UTC and shows Typhoon Muifa still tracking through the open waters of the western North Pacific Ocean. Strong thunderstorms appear in purple, bringing heavy rainfall.
Credit: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen
NASA Sees Large Typhoon Muifa Moving Through the Western North Pacific

Typhoon Muifa is a large storm moving through the western North Pacific Ocean today.

NASA captured an infrared image of the typhoon on Aug. 2 at 3:59 UTC that shows Typhoon Muifa had a large aera of strong thunderstorms around its center of circulation.

Typhoon Muifa's maximum sustained winds were near 110 knots, and it was moving to the north at 6 knots. Muifa is a large typhoon, about 410 miles in diameter. It was located about 410 miles east-southeast of Kadena Air Force Base, Japan, on August 2.

Muifa is expected to strengthen a little more over the next day, and after passing Okinawa, it is expected to start weakening once it enters the Yellow Sea.

Text credit: Rob Gutro,NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.



July 29, 2011

AIRS infrared image of Tropical Storm Muifa on July 29, 2011 at 04:17 UTC (12:17 a.m. EDT). › View larger image
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over huge Tropical Storm Muifa on July 29, 2011 at 04:17 UTC (12:17 a.m. EDT). The infrared image revealed a large area of powerful, high thunderstorms with cold cloud tops (purple) east and west of the center where cloud temperatures were colder than -63 Fahrenheit (-52 Celsius). Muifa is about 1000 miles wide.
Credit: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen
Tropical Storm Muifa Appears Huge on NASA Infrared Imagery

The width of an image from the AIRS instrument that flies on NASA's Aqua satellite is about 1700 km (1056 miles), and the clouds and thunderstorms associate with Tropical Storm Muifa take up that entire distance on today's imagery.

Tropical Storm Muifa is spinning through the western North Pacific Ocean today and has grown in size. When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the storm on July 29, 2011 at 04:17 UTC (12:17 a.m. EDT) it measured the temperatures in the cloud tops. Those cloud top temperatures especially in the east and western sides of the tropical storm were colder than -62 Fahrenheit/-52 Celsius, indicating strong storms with heavy rainfall. Fortunately, much of that heavy rainfall was over open ocean.

Today's image shows that the center of the storm appears almost cloud free and there was strong convection (rapidly rising air that form thunderstorms) and strong thunderstorms on the east, south and western sides of the storm. Convection on the north side of the tropical storm is still being suppressed by the same weather system that affected it yesterday.

At 1500 UTC (10 a.m. EDT) on July 29, Tropical Storm Muifa had maximum sustained winds near 55 knots (63 mph/101 kmh) and was moving north at 6 knots (7 mph). It was located about 815 nautical miles south-southeast of Kadena Air Base near 14.1 North and 133.9 East.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center forecasters expect Muifa to strengthen over the next couple of days as it moves north across the Pacific.

Text credit: Rob Gutro,NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.



July 28, 2011

AIRS captured this infrared image of Muifa on July 27  at 1647 UTC (12:47 p.m. EDT) and its center is identified here. › View larger image
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Storm Muifa and the AIRS instrument captured this infrared image of the storm's cold cloud tops (purple) and strong thunderstorms on July 27 at 1647 UTC (12:47 p.m. EDT). The storm's center is identified here. The Philippines are located to the west and can be seen on the left side of the image.
Credit: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen
NASA Identifies the Areas of Tropical Storm Muifa's Strength

The strongest thunderstorms that make up tropical storm Muifa are on the storm's eastern and southern sides, according to infrared imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite. The northern side is being weakened by a nearby weather system.

Tropical Storm Muifa is moving through the western North Pacific Ocean, and had strengthened during the early morning hours of July 28. On July 27, it was tropical depression 11W and winds have since increased to 40 knots (46 mph/74 kmh).

When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Storm Muifa the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument captured an infrared look at the storm's cold cloud tops and strong thunderstorms. The colder the cloud tops, the higher the thunderstorms and the stronger they are. The AIRS infrared image on July 27 at 1647 UTC (12:47 p.m. EDT) showed that the highest, coldest thunderstorms were on the eastern and southern sides of the center.

So why doesn't the northern side of Tropical Storm Muifa have any strong convection (rapidly rising air that form thunderstorms that make up the storm)? The answer is that Muifa is located 10 degrees southeast of a high pressure area in the western North Pacific Ocean that is preventing evaporation in the storm's northern quadrant. The high pressure area is pushing air downward toward the surface and preventing evaporation and formation of thunderstorms.

At 1200 UTC (8 a.m. EDT) on July 28, 2011, Muifa was located 655 nautical miles west of Andersen Air Force Base, Guam, near 12.4 North and 133.6 East. It was moving to the west-northwest near 12 knots (14 mph/22 kmh) and is expected to continue in that direction and turn more toward the north in the next couple of days.

Text credit: Rob Gutro,NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.



July 27, 2011

Powerful, high thunderstorms with cold cloud tops surrounded the center of TD11W's circulation (purple). › View larger image
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Depression 11W 0900 UTC (5 a.m. EDT) on July 27. Powerful, high thunderstorms with cold cloud tops surrounded the center of TD11W's circulation (purple) where cloud temperatures were colder than -63 Fahrenheit (-52 Celsius).
Credit: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen
TRMM data was used to create a 3-D image of11W's rainfall and cloud heights as it passed overhead on July 26. › View larger image
The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite data was used to create a 3-D image of Tropical Depression 11W's rainfall and cloud heights as it passed overhead on July 26. TD11W had towering convective storms near their centers of circulation that extended to heights above 15km (~9.3 miles) with heavy rainfall, falling at 2 inches (50 mm) per hour.
Credit: NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
Tropical Depression 11W Moving Past Yap and Guam

A NASA satellite has observed Tropical Depression 11W become more organized on infrared imagery. Fortunately, it is moving away from land areas for the next couple of days.

Yap and Guam are both experiencing the tail end of gusty winds and rains as Tropical Depression 11W moves between the two islands in the western North Pacific today.

At 0900 UTC (5 a.m. EDT) on July 27, Tropical Depression 11W's (TD11W) maximum sustained winds were still near 30 knots (34 mph). It was located about 290 nautical miles southwest of Andersen Air Force Base, Guam near 10.7 North and 140.5 East. It was moving to the northwest near 12 knots (14 mph).

When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over TD11W on July 26 at 16:05 UTC (12:05 p.m. EDT) the center of circulation appeared much more rounded than it had in the previous days, indicating that the storm was getting better organized. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument captured the infrared image that showed powerful, high thunderstorms with cold cloud tops surrounded the center of TD11W's circulation, although the center is partially exposed to outside winds. There were also a number of bands of thunderstorms around the center. TD11W is kicking up waves of 12 feet high, and generating rough surf at Yap and Guam.

TD11W is moving around the western edge of a low to mid-level ridge of high pressure, and will continue in a northwestward direction for the next day or two. After that, the ridge is expected to weaken and the storm track will head in a more northeasterly direction.

Text credit: Rob Gutro,NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.












July 26, 2011

AIRS image on July 26 showed a large area of very cold cloud top temperatures (purple). › View larger image
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Depression 11W on July 26 at 0347 UTC (11:47 p.m. EDT on July 25). This infrared image was taken from the AIRS instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite and showed a large area of very cold cloud top temperatures (purple) from strong thunderstorms around the center of the storm.
Credit: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen
NASA Sees Dramatic Temperatures Around Tropical Depression 11W

Tropical Depression 11W appears as a huge and very cold area of clouds on infrared imagery from NASA. Infrared imagery basically provides temperature data of factors such as clouds and sea surface and there's quite a contrast between the two around Tropical Depression 11W.

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Depression 11W (TD11W) on July 26 at 0347 UTC (11:47 p.m. EDT on July 25). It showed that within TD11W there was a large area of cloud-top temperatures that were colder than -63 Fahrenheit (-52 Celsius), which indicates strong convection (rapidly rising air that form thunderstorms) and suggests heavy rainfall. The image showed that the northern fringe of TD11W was just south of Andersen Air Force Base in the Western North Pacific Ocean. Meanwhile, the southeastern side of the storm was already affecting Yap. A tropical storm watch is in effect for Fais and Ulithi in Yap State (Micronesia).

The dramatic temperatures are marked between the frigid cloud top temperatures and the warm water surrounding the tropical depression. The sea surface temperatures exceed the 80 degree Fahrenheit mark, and compared with the cloud-top temperatures of -63 Fahrenheit, that's a difference of 143 degrees from cloud top to sea surface!

At 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT) on July 27, the center of TD11W was about 320 nautical miles south-southwest of Andersen Air Force Base, Guam, near 9.3 North and 142.0 East. It was moving to the northwest near 13 knots (15 mph) and had maximum sustained winds near 30 knots (34 mph).

TD11W is expected to intensify to typhoon strength and recurve to the northeast.

Text credit: Rob Gutro,NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.



July 25, 2011

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the eastern half of Tropical Depression 11W › View larger image
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the eastern half of Tropical Depression 11W. This infrared image was taken from the AIRS instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite on July 25 at 0305 UTC (11:05 p.m. EDT, July 24) and it revealed a large area of very cold cloud top temperatures (purple) from strong thunderstorms around the center of the storm. (Light blue areas indicate no data.)
Credit: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen
NASA Satellite Confirms Birth of 11th Tropical Depression in Western North Pacific

Right after the tenth tropical depression came together in the western North Pacific, the eleventh was born today, July 25 and captured on infrared satellite imagery from NASA.

On July 25 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT), Tropical Depression 11W formed 505 nautical miles south-southeast of Andersen Air Force Base, Guam near 5.6 North and 147.2 East. It has maximum sustained winds near 25 knots and is moving to the west-northwest near 4 knots (5 mph).

Infrared imagery from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite showed that the storm consolidated quickly. Because the depression is in a good environment of low wind shear and warm ocean surface temperatures it is expected to reach typhoon status later this week.

Tropical Depression 11W is forecast to move in a west-northwesterly direction and cross between Yap to the south and Andersen Air Force Base to the north.

Text credit: Rob Gutro,NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.