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Hurricane Season 2010: Tropical Depression 11S (Southern Indian Ocean)
01.29.10
 
January 29, 2010

Light showers (green/yellow)  continues to wrap into TD11S's low-level center from the southwest quadrant of the storm. > View larger image
On Jan. 29 the TRMM satellite noticed light showers (green/yellow) continues to wrap into TD11S's low-level center from the southwest quadrant of the storm. Note the area devoid of rainfall is the opening in the circulation on the northwestern side of the storm.
Credit: NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
Two NASA Satellites See TD11S Going Extra-Tropical

NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission or TRMM satellite and NASA's Aqua satellite have observed the rainfall patterns and temperatures within Tropical Depression 11S, and they indicate the storm is becoming extra-tropical.

Tropical Depression 11S (TD 11S) had maximum sustained winds near 34 mph (30 knots) on January 29 at 09:00 UTC (4 a.m. ET). It was located about 320 nautical miles southeast of La Reunion Island, near 25.5 South and 59.8 East. It was moving southeast near 11 mph (10 knots).

The TRMM satellite, managed by both NASA and JAXA, took a look at the rainfall happening within TD 11S and noticed some shallower convection (showers and thunderstorms) continues to wrap into the storm's low-level center from the southwest quadrant of the storm. Despite the convection, TD11S's center is now fully exposed from the west which means that drier air or wind shear can enter into the storm and weaken it.

Another factor affecting the storm is an upper-level low, which is northwest of the 11S's center. That upper-level low is actually suppressing more convection in TD11S.

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over TD 11S and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A) instrument aboard it measured the temperatures within TD 11S. AMSU-A a 15-channel microwave sounder designed primarily to obtain temperature profiles in the upper atmosphere (especially the stratosphere) and to provide a cloud-filtering capability for tropospheric temperature observations.

On January 28 at 1400 UTC (9:00 a.m. ET) AMSU-A showed that the lower-level center of the storm has a warm core center and that a cold core has developed aloft, which indicates that TD 11S may have already become more subtropical in nature.

A conversion to "extratropical" status means that the storm eventually loses its warm core and becomes a cold-core system. During the time it is becoming extratropical the cyclone's primary energy source changes from the release of latent heat from condensation (from thunderstorms near the storm's center) to baroclinic (temperature and air pressure) processes. When a cyclone becomes extratropical it will usually connect with nearby fronts and or troughs (extended areas of low pressure) consistent with a baroclinic (pressure) system. When that happens it appears the system grows larger while the core weakens.

TD11S isn't threatening any land areas, and is forecast to complete its transition to an extra-tropical storm over the weekend.

Text credit: Rob Gutro, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center



January 28, 2010

Tropical Depression 11S's rainfall, as it was centered east of La Reunion Island. > View larger image
At 11:20 p.m. ET January 27, TRMM captured Tropical Depression 11S's rainfall, as it was centered east of La Reunion Island. Although most of the rainfall was light to moderate (yellow and green) there were some areas of heavy rain of over 2 inches per hour (red).
Credit: NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
Tropical Depression 11S Forms in the Southern Indian Ocean

The eleventh tropical depression formed today in the Southern Indian Ocean south of Port Louis. It will continue on a southeasterly track and move into open ocean.

At 4 a.m. ET (09:00 UTC) on January 28, Tropical Depression 11S (TD 11S) had maximum sustained winds near 39 mph (35 knots). It was located about 180 nautical miles east of La Reunion, near 21.7 degree South latitude and 58.9 degrees East longitude. TD 11S is moving southward near 6 mph (5 knots).

La Reunion Island is a French island located in the Southern Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and about 120 miles southwest of the island of Mauritius.

At 11:20 p.m. ET January 27, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, or TRMM satellite captured Tropical Depression 11S's rainfall, as it was centered east of La Reunion Island. Although most of the rainfall was light to moderate there were some areas of heavy rain of over 2 inches per hour. For more information on the TRMM satellite, go to: www.trmm.nasa.gov.

Despite being in an area of low wind shear, TD 11S has a fully exposed low-level circulation center, which opens the storm's circulation up to wind shear and dry air. Low wind shear helps a storm strengthen, while open circulation lends itself to weakening a storm.

Over the next day or two, however, TD 11S is expected to redevelop and convection (rapidly rising air that forms thunderstorms) and strengthen as it moves over warm sea surface temperatures. After it strengthens, then over the weekend, it is expected to become extra-tropical while remaining over open ocean.

Text credit: Rob Gutro, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center