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Hurricane Season 2008: Typhoon Jangmi (Western Pacific)
 
Oct. 03, 2008

Typhoon Jangmi Now a Memory, Slammed Taiwan's Agriculture

QuikSCAT image of Jangmi's winds over Taiwan Credit: NASA JPL
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Typhoon Jangmi, which has since dissipated, caused a lot of damage to Taiwan' s industries when it made landfall September 28 and 29, according to the China Post newspaper.

According to the Taiwanese Cabinet-level Council of Agriculture (COA) agriculture took a 2 billion dollar hit from Jangmi's winds and rain. Products that were adversely affected include aquatic rice, bananas, corn, dates, grapes, guava, oranges, pears, peanuts, papaya, scallion, and wax apples. The COA estimated that as much as "57,187 hectares of farming area were damaged by about 22 percent, translating into 12,864 hectares in harvestless farmland," the Post said.

Losses in livestock have been assessed around 5.74 million, while fisheries suffered more with losses amounting to near 81 million. COA officials said that farmers in six counties are qualified to apply for relief funds from the government, including Miaoli County, Taichung County, Changhua County, Yunlin County, Chiayi County and Tainan County.

QuikSCAT Captured the Storm's Winds from Space

NASA's Quick Scatterometer satellite (QuikScat) kept an eye on Jangmi's winds by using microwaves to peer into the clouds. QuikScat can determine the speed of the rotating winds. This image from QuikScat shows Jangmi's wind speeds in different colors and wind direction are indicated by small barbs. White barbs point to areas of heavy rain. The highest wind speeds are normally shown in purple, which indicate winds over 40 knots (46 mph). The strongest winds are represented in the center of circulation. This image was captured on Oct. 1 at 10:10 UTC (6:10 a.m. EDT).

Text credit: Rob Gutro/Goddard Space Flight Center



Oct. 02, 2008

A Tale of Two Typhoons: One Terminating and One Toughening Up

AIRS image of Jangmi and Higos from Oct. 2, 2008
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Credit: NASA JPL
Former typhoon Jangmi is fading away in the western Pacific Ocean, while Tropical Depression Higos is expected to regain strength before making landfall in China.

On September 30, Tropical Cyclone Jangmi's remnants were drifting just south of Japan. By Oct. 2nd, The Joint Typhoon Warning Center, the organization that issues advisories for Typhoons, stopped issuing them for Jangmi, as it's now just a remnant low pressure area.

However, the latest advisory for Higos was issued on Oct. 2 at 1500 Zulu Time (11:00 a.m. EDT). At that time, Tropical Depression Higos had maximum sustained winds near 30 knots (34 mph). It was about 300 nautical miles east-southeast of Hainan Island, near 16.5 degrees north and 113.5 degrees east. Higos was moving westward at 16 knots (18 mph), and is expected to strengthen back into a tropical storm before making landfall on Hainan Island, China, late on Oct. 3. It is then expected to swing over and make landfall around 65 miles west of Hong Kong and follow the China coast on a northeast path before fizzling on Oct. 7 between Hong Kong and Shanghai.

Aqua Satellite Sees Both Storms' Cold Clouds

The image was created by data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), an instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. The image was taken on Sept 30 at 17:23 UTC (1:23 p.m. EDT). The infrared image shows a huge temperature difference between the tops of the clouds in a tropical cyclone and the warm ocean waters that power it. In the image, Jangmi's remnants are in the top right corner, while Higos is in the lower left corner, centered over the Philippines.

The AIRS image shows the temperature of the cloud tops or the surface of the Earth in cloud-free regions. The lowest temperatures (in purple) are associated with high, cold cloud tops that make up the top of the area of low pressure. Those temperatures are as cold as or colder than 220 degrees Kelvin or minus 63 degrees Fahrenheit (F). The blue areas are around 240 degrees Kelvin, or minus 27F.

The infrared signal of the AIRS instrument does not penetrate through clouds. Where there are no clouds the AIRS instrument reads the infrared signal from the ocean and land surfaces, revealing warmer temperatures in orange and red. The orange temperatures are 80F (300 degrees Kelvin) or greater (the darker they are, the warmer they are), and tropical cyclones need sea surface temperatures of 80F to strengthen and maintain their strength.

The data from AIRS is also used to create an accurate 3-D map of atmospheric temperature, water vapor and clouds, all of which are helpful to forecasters. Text credit: Rob Gutro/Goddard Space Flight Center


Sept. 30, 2008

Tropical Storm Jangmi Triggers Evacuations in Coastal China

QuikSCAT image of Jangmi's winds Credit: NASA JPL
> Larger image
Tropical Storm Jangmi killed two people in Taiwan when it hit there on Sunday, Sept. 28, and residents of mainland China are paying attention. According to Aljazeera.net, More than 500,000 people have now been ordered to leave the Fujian and Zhejiang provinces along China's eastern seaboard as Jangmi is headed toward the region. Jangmi is expected to skirt the China coast, then turn northeast and head to southwestern Japan.

On Sept. 30 at 6:00 Zulu Time (2:00 a.m. EDT) Tropical Storm Jangmi was located 320 nautical miles southwest of Sasebo, Japan. That's near 26.9 degrees north latitude and 125.0 degrees west longitude. Jangmi's maximum sustained winds are 45 knots (52 mph) and Jangmi was moving northeast near 14 knots (16 mph).

QuikSCAT Watching Tropical Storm Jangmi's Winds NASA's Quick Scatterometer satellite (QuikScat) has been watching Jangmi's winds by using microwaves to peer into the clouds. QuikScat can determine the speed of the rotating winds. This image from QuikScat shows Jangmi's wind speeds in different colors and wind direction are indicated by small barbs. White barbs point to areas of heavy rain. The highest wind speeds are normally shown in purple, which indicate winds over 40 knots (46 mph), but as this image shows, the winds are simply not that strong. The strongest winds are represented in the center of circulation, depicted in blue in this image. This image was captured on Sept. 28 at 9:50 UTC (5:50 a.m. EDT).

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center is the organization that monitors typhoons, and they use QuikScat data in their forecasts. The most recent discussion by the Warning Center says "In the analysis of recent data, including microwave satellite-derived storm core temperature anomalies, reveals that Jangmi has begun extra-tropical transition."

Typhoons regularly hit China, Taiwan, the Philippines and Japan beginning in August through the end of the year and this year, there have been 21 so far.

Text credit: Rob Gutro, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center



Sept. 29, 2008

A Triple Threat: 3 Tropical Cyclones Churn in Western Pacific

AIRS image of the three Western Pacific typhoons on Sept. 29, 2008
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Credit: NASA JPL
The western Pacific Ocean is a busy place for tropical cyclones on Monday, Sept. 29. That's because Tropical Storm Jangmi, Mekkhala and 21W are all active. They're keeping residents of China, Japan, Vietnam and the Philippines all on watch.

Tropical Storm Jangmi is near the coast of China and is forecast to slingshot to the northeast and pass Japan. Tropical storm Jangmi, also known as "19w," was located approximately 305 nautical miles west of Okinawa, Japan. Specifically, its center was near 27.2 degrees north latitude and 122.1 degrees east longitude. It was moving north-northeast near 9 knots (10 mph). Jangmi had maximum sustained winds near 55 knots (63 mph).

Tropical Storm Mekkhala, meanwhile is east of Vietnam, and is forecast to make landfall in central Vietnam on Sept. 30. On Sept. 29 at 15:00 Zulu Time (1:00 p.m. EDT), Mekkhala was located near 17.3 degrees north latitude and 108.9 degrees east longitude. It was moving to the west-northwest near 10 knots (11 mph), and had maximum sustained winds near 45 knots (51 mph).

Tropical Storm 21W is located east of the Philippines, and is projected to track northwest over Manila on October 2, then head to Taiwan. On Sept. 29 at 15:00 Zulu Time (1:00 p.m. EDT), 21W was located near 9.2 degrees north and 129.0 degrees east. It had maximum sustained winds near 35 knots (40 mph) and was moving west-northwest near 15 knots (17 mph).

Aqua Satellite Captures All Three Tropical Storms

This infrared image was created by data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), an instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. It was taken on Sunday, Sept. 29 at 12:29 p.m. EDT (4:29 UTC). The infrared image shows a huge temperature difference between the tops of the clouds in a tropical cyclone and the warm ocean waters that power it.

The AIRS image shows the temperature of the cloud tops or the surface of the Earth in cloud-free regions. The lowest temperatures (in purple) are associated with high, cold cloud tops that make up the top of the area of low pressure. Those temperatures are as cold as or colder than 220 degrees Kelvin or minus 63 degrees Fahrenheit (F). The blue areas are around 240 degrees Kelvin, or minus 27F.

The infrared signal of the AIRS instrument does not penetrate through clouds. Where there are no clouds the AIRS instrument reads the infrared signal from the ocean and land surfaces, revealing warmer temperatures in orange and red. The orange temperatures are 80F (300 degrees Kelvin) or greater (the darker they are, the warmer they are), and tropical cyclones need sea surface temperatures of 80F to strengthen and maintain their strength.

The data from AIRS is also used to create an accurate 3-D map of atmospheric temperature, water vapor and clouds, all of which are helpful to forecasters.

Text credit: Rob Gutro, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center



Sept. 26, 2008

Typhoon Jangmi is Huge and Headed to Southern Taiwan

AIRS image of Jangmi on Sept. 26, 2008
> Larger image
Credit: NASA JPL
Typhoon Jangmi is a large and powerful typhoon and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center projects its track will take it over extreme southern Taiwan in the early morning hours on Monday Eastern Time.

On Sept. 26 at 9:00 Zulu Time (5:00 a.m. EDT) Jangmi had maximum sustained winds near 90 knots (103 mph) with higher gusts. Jangmi is a category two typhoon on the Saffir-Simpson scale, and is expected to strengthen. Jangmi was located approximately 480 nautical miles east of Manila, the Philippines, near 16.9 degrees north latitude and 128.9 degrees east longitude. Jangmi has moved 125 miles over a 24 hour period and Jangmi is moving west near 12 knots (13 mph).

Aqua Satellite Instrument Captures a Huge Typhoon Jangmi

Typhoon Jangmi is huge and well formed. This infrared satellite image shows that as it continues to creep westward toward the Philippines. The image was created by data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), an instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. The image was taken on Sept 25 at 17:05 UTC (1:05 p.m. EDT). The infrared image shows a huge temperature difference between the tops of the clouds in a tropical cyclone and the warm ocean waters that power it.

The AIRS image shows the temperature of the cloud tops or the surface of the Earth in cloud-free regions. The lowest temperatures (in purple) are associated with high, cold cloud tops that make up the top of the area of low pressure. Those temperatures are as cold as or colder than 220 degrees Kelvin or minus 63 degrees Fahrenheit (F). The blue areas are around 240 degrees Kelvin, or minus 27F.

The infrared signal of the AIRS instrument does not penetrate through clouds. Where there are no clouds the AIRS instrument reads the infrared signal from the ocean and land surfaces, revealing warmer temperatures in orange and red. The orange temperatures are 80F (300 degrees Kelvin) or greater (the darker they are, the warmer they are), and tropical cyclones need sea surface temperatures of 80F to strengthen and maintain their strength.

The data from AIRS is also used to create an accurate 3-D map of atmospheric temperature, water vapor and clouds, all of which are helpful to forecasters.

Text credit: Rob Gutro, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center



Sept. 25, 2008

Another New Typhoon Forms in the Western Pacific: Jangmi

Typhoon Jangmi formed in the same vicinity of the western Pacific Ocean as its predecessor, Typhoon Hagupit, which has since dissipated. Early models are taking Jangmi over extreme southern Taiwan and making landfall in mainland China between Hong Kong and Shanghai (located to the north) by Sept. 29.

On Sept. 25 at 12:00 Zulu Time (8:00 a.m. EDT) Jangmi had maximum sustained winds near 70 knots (80 mph) with higher gusts. Jangmi is a category one typhoon on the Saffir-Simpson scale, and is expected to strengthen. Jangmi was located approximately 605 nautical miles east of Manila, the Philippines, near 14.5 degrees north latitude and 131.4 degrees east longitude. Jangmi is moving west near 11 knots (13 mph).

QuikSCAT Watching Jangmi's Winds Build

Quikscat image of Typhoon Jangmi on Sept. 25, 2008
> Larger image
Credit: NASA JPL
NASA's Quick Scatterometer satellite (QuikScat) has been watching Jangmi's winds increase by using microwaves to peer into the clouds. QuikScat can determine the speed of the rotating winds. This image from QuikScat shows Jangmi's wind speeds in different colors and wind direction are indicated by small barbs. White barbs point to areas of heavy rain. The highest wind speeds are normally shown in purple, which indicate winds over 40 knots (46 mph), but as this image shows, the winds are simply not that strong. The strongest winds are represented in the center of circulation, depicted in blue in this image. This image was captured on Sept. 25 at 9:30 UTC (5:30 a.m. EDT).

Aqua Satellite Sees a Large Typhoon Jangmi

Typhoon Jangmi is a large storm, and this infrared satellite image shows that as it lay east of the Philippines. The image was created by data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), an instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. The image was taken on Sept 25 at 4:53 UTC (12:53 a.m. EDT). The infrared image shows a huge temperature difference between the tops of the clouds in a tropical cyclone and the warm ocean waters that power it.

AIRS image of Typhoon Jangmi on Sept. 25, 2008
> Larger image
Credit: NASA JPL
The AIRS image shows the temperature of the cloud tops or the surface of the Earth in cloud-free regions. The lowest temperatures (in purple) are associated with high, cold cloud tops that make up the top of the area of low pressure. Those temperatures are as cold as or colder than 220 degrees Kelvin or minus 63 degrees Fahrenheit (F). The blue areas are around 240 degrees Kelvin, or minus 27F.

The infrared signal of the AIRS instrument does not penetrate through clouds. Where there are no clouds the AIRS instrument reads the infrared signal from the ocean and land surfaces, revealing warmer temperatures in orange and red. The orange temperatures are 80F (300 degrees Kelvin) or greater (the darker they are, the warmer they are), and tropical cyclones need sea surface temperatures of 80F to strengthen and maintain their strength.

The data from AIRS is also used to create an accurate 3-D map of atmospheric temperature, water vapor and clouds, all of which are helpful to forecasters.

Text credit: Rob Gutro, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center