Follow this link to skip to                                      the main content

Featured Images

Text Size

Hurricane Season 2006: Florence (Atlantic)
09.08.06
 
Tropical Storm Florence Far Out to Sea in the Northern Atlantic

Tropical Storm Florence, that brought rains and hurricane force winds to Bermuda as of Thurs. Sept. 14 was located in the northern Atlantic Ocean in open waters.

The CloudSat and the GOES Satellites Look at Florence

Image of Florence from Cloudsat on Sept. 12, 2006
Click image to enlarge


These two images satellite images in the same frame are from two different satellites, giving a top-down and sideways view of Florence when she was a hurricane on Sept. 12, 2006 at 6:45 UTC (2:45 a.m. EDT) tracking into the north Atlantic Ocean.

The top image is from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) to give an idea of how the storm looked from the top and measuring the temperatures of Florence's clouds. The blue areas represent ice cold temperatures ranging from -30 to -50 degrees Celsius (-22 to -58 Fahrenheit) in Florence's clouds. This data was processed by NASA's GOES Project at the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The black line shows the track that NASA's CloudSat satellite took as it passed through Florence's center.

The CloudSat image (bottom) shows how Florence looked from the side. At this time Florence was a Category one hurricane. The red and purple areas indicate large amounts of cloud water. The blue areas along the top of the clouds indicate cloud ice, while the wavy blue lines on the bottom center of the image indicate intense rainfall. Notice that the solid line along the bottom of the panel, which is the ground, disappears in these areas of intense precipitation. It is likely that in the area the precipitation rate exceeds 30mm/hr (1.18 inches/hour) based on previous studies.

Who Monitors Florence Now That She's in the North Atlantic?

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)'s Ocean Prediction Center (OPC) has taken over advisories on hurricane Florence's remnants as she continues to cross the Atlantic Ocean and head toward Europe.

Where is Florence on Thurs. Sept. 14?

At 12:30 p.m. EDT (1630 UTC) Sept. 14, NOAA's OPC issued a storm warning to ships in the northern Atlantic Ocean as the low pressure system, formerly known as Hurricane Florence was located at 49 north latitude and 45 west longitude. Looking at a map of the Atlantic Ocean, it appears Florence is due south of the southern tip of Greenland and east of Newfoundland, Canada. Her minimum central pressure was 974 millibars, and she was moving to the east-northeast at 25 knots (29 mph). Florence was still packing sustained winds from 40 to 50 knots (46-57 mph) and generating seas as high as 20 feet to 32 feet in a circle extending 360 nautical miles south from the center. Seas to those heights also extend 300 nautical miles to the north, and 240 nautical miles to the northwest. + More info on Florence's Atlantic crossing at NOAA OPC's Website under "Atlantic High Seas Forecast" Image credit: Image credit: NASA/JPL/The Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA), Colorado State University/NOAA; Caption credit: Rob Gutro -- Goddard Space Flight Center



Tropical Storm Florence Packs Her Bags for Europe

The National Hurricane Center stopped issuing public advisories on Hurricane Florence late on Tues. Sept. 12 as Florence headed into the north Atlantic Ocean. Forecasting for Florence in the open ocean is now up to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service (NWS).

The NWS' Ocean Prediction Center, the organization that issues marine forecasts for the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea reported on Sept. 13 at 10:30 UTC (6:30 a.m. EDT) that Florence has been downgraded to a tropical storm with sustained winds between 50 and 65 knots (57-69 mph).

Florence is actually "extratropical," means she is a deep, low-pressure storm now outside of the tropics.

At 6:30 a.m. EDT, Sept 13, Florence was located at 43 north latitude and 56 west longitude, moving northeast at 20 knots (23 mph). Her minimum central pressure was 972 millibars. The Ocean Prediction Center noted that seas will be highest in the northern quadrant or section of Florence, reaching between 20 and 30 feet high. The last forecast map track by the National Hurricane Center on Sept. 12 projected Florence headed toward Ireland over the next week.

NASA's TRMM Satellite Sees Rainfall in Florence

TRMM image of Hurricane Florence on September 11, 2006
Click image to enlarge


This image was taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and was taken at 7:05 p.m. local time (23:35 UTC) on Sept. 11. This image shows the rain falling in Florence. The data shows rain bands circling a rather large eye, which contains an area of intense rain (dark red arc) in the northwest eyewall. The southeastern part of the eyewall, however, appears ragged. Most of the rain was ahead of the storm (the broad blue and green area indicating light to moderate rain, respectively). TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA. Image: Hal Pierce, SSAI/NASA GSFC -- Caption: Steve Lang, SSAI/NASA GSFC and Rob Gutro, NASA GSFC



Three Times the Tropics: Florence, Gordon, and Tropical Depression #8

Hurricane Florence, Tropical Storm Gordon, and the newly formed Tropical Depression 8 can be seen in this satellite image from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite.
Click image to enlarge


As Atlantic Hurricane season approaches its peak, which is mid-September, forecasters are watching three storms in the Atlantic Ocean. Credit: NOAA/NASA GOES Project

Hurricane Florence, Tropical Storm Gordon, and the newly formed Tropical Depression #8 can be seen in this satellite image from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). This satellite image was captured on Tues. Sept. 12 at 7:04 a.m. EDT. This data was processed by NASA's GOES Project at the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.

Gordon to Become a Hurricane

At 5:00 a.m. EDT the center of Tropical Storm Gordon was located near latitude 22.6 north, longitude 58.3 west or about 445 miles north-northeast of the Leeward Islands. Gordon is moving toward the northwest near 8 mph and a turn to the north-northwest is expected during the next 24 hours. Maximum sustained winds are near 60 mph with higher gusts. Gordon is expected to become a hurricane during the next day or so. Estimated minimum central pressure is 1000 millibars. By Friday, Sept. 15, Gordon will be a hurricane and is expected to be far east enough of Bermuda to not bring rain and winds to the island, but would likely bring heavy surf. Check the National Hurricane Center website: www.nhc.noaa.gov for updated forecasts.

Florence Heading into the North Atlantic

Hurricane Florence has left Bermuda behind, and left its mark, as she heads into the waters of the North Atlantic. At 5:00 a.m. EDT, Florence was in the Altantic, parallel to northern New Jersey, and kicking up dangerous surf conditions along the Atlantic coast of the Bahamas, the U.S. and Canada. She is expected to bring rains to Ireland by the weekend.

At 5:00 a.m. EDT on Tues. Sept. 12, the National Hurricane Center places the center of Hurricane Florence near latitude 37.2 north and longitude 62.4 west or about 365 miles north-northeast of Bermuda and about 810 miles southwest of Cape Race, Newfoundland. Florence is moving toward the northeast near 20 mph. Maximum sustained winds are near 75 mph with higher gusts. Florence is a category one hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. Little change in intensity is forecast during the next 24 hours. Estimated minimum central pressure is 980 millibars.

Florence's Wake in Bermuda

Hurricane Florence hit Bermuda Mon. Sept. 11, ripping up several roofs and cutting power. No injuries were reported to authorities however. According to Bermuda's electric company, at least 18,000 homes and businesses were without power Monday evening. One Bermuda observing station recorded a gust of 111 mph.

Tropical Depression #8 Forms in the Far Eastern Atlantic
Ship reports and satellite images indicated tropical depression #8 formed from the tropical wave that moved off the west coast of Africa yesterday. At 11:00 a.m. EDT the center of tropical depression eight was located near latitude 12.5 north and longitude 23.0 west or about 185 miles south-southeast of the southernmost Cape Verde Islands. Estimated minimum central pressure is 1007 millibars. The depression is moving toward the west near 18 mph. Maximum sustained winds are near 30 mph and some strengthening is forecast during the next 24 hours. That means that the depression could become Tropical Storm Helene within the next day or so. Caption credit: Rob Gutro -- Goddard Space Flight Center



Hurricane Florence Hitting Bermuda

Florence blossomed into a hurricane on Sun. Sept. 10 at 2:00 a.m. EDT, and at 8:00 a.m. EDT, Mon. Sept. 11, she was passing near Bermuda bringing hurricane force wind gusts to the island.

Bermuda is under a hurricane warning as at 8 a.m. EDT Sept. 11, Florence's center is near 32.3 north latitude and 65.8 west longitude or 60 miles west of the island. She's moving north near 12 mph, and is expected to turn to the north-northeast in the next day. Florence is a Category one hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale with sustained winds near 80 mph, and gusts to 96 mph. Those hurricane force winds extend out 60 miles from her center. Latest minimum central pressure was 974 millibars.

What is Bermuda Dealing With?

Storm surge values of 6 to 8 feet above normal tide levels along with large and dangerous battering waves are likely along the coast of Bermuda as Florence passes near the island today. Rainfall amounts of 2 to 4 inches can be expected in Bermuda in association with Florence with isolated maximum amounts of 6 inches.

What Are Florence's Effects Elsewhere?

Large ocean swells and dangerous surf conditions, including strong rip currents, are affecting the Bahamas and portions of the East Coast of the United States and the Canadian Maritimes.

The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite Captures Florence

TRMM image of Florence on September 7, 2006
Click image to enlarge


These two images (above and below) show Florence as it was passing well to the northeast of the Leeward Islands. The images were taken at 2017 UTC (4:17 pm EDT) Sept. 7 by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (or TRMM) satellite. TRMM's instruments are designed to measure rainfall from space but has also proven itself to be a valuable tool for examining tropical cyclones. The first image shows instantaneous rain rates (how much rain is falling) associated with areas of convection (rising air, forming clouds and rain) within the storm.

TRMM reveals that Florence consists of a rather unusually broad area of scattered light (blue) to moderate (green) rain with little evidence of organization as indicated by the lack of an eye or banding features (curvature). Indeed the center of circulation as indicated by the storm symbol is on the southern edge of the convective activity.

TRMM image of Florence in 3d on September 7, 2006
Click image to enlarge


The next image (above) gives a 3-D perspective of the storm. The view is to the northeast. TRMM shows several deep convective towers (large towering thunderclouds), as shown in red, with tops that exceed 9.3 miles high (15 kilometers). Normally, such towers can be an indication of future strengthening as they mark areas of strong convection (rising air) within the storm. However, because Florence had such a wide circulation and was not-well organized with the center of circulation at the edge of the cloud mass, any intensification was slow. At the time of these images, Florence's sustained winds were estimated to be 45 knots (52 mph) by the National Hurricane Center. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA. Credit Images: SSAI/NASA GSFC, Hal Pierce Caption: SSAI/NASA GSFC, Steve Lang and GSFC, Rob Gutro



Florence Over the Weekend

National Hurricane Center's forecast track for Tropical Storm Florence for the weekend of September 9 and 10, 2006.
Click image to enlarge


This is the National Hurricane Center 3 day forecast track for Tropical Storm Florence over the weekend of Sept. 9, 2006. The "S" in the black dot means that Florence is of tropical storm strength, and the "H" indicates Florence strengthens to a hurricane. Bermuda will likely post a hurricane watch this weekend. Credit: NOAA/NHC

Where Goes Flo On the Weekend?

Tropical Storm Florence, spinning in the western Atlantic seems to be changing her track a little from what was originally thought. The National Hurricane Center (NHC) originally thought that Florence would travel west of Bermuda and hook northward around a high pressure system. However, now it seems that Florence can't wait to go north, and is going to pass to the east of Bermuda. This is good news for Bermuda, as the strongest winds and rains of a hurricane or tropical storm are typically in the northeast quadrant – which will be away from the Island, but Florence is expected to strengthen to hurricane status over the weekend.

Florence is a Large Storm

The NHC's latest report said that Florence appears to be ready to strengthen. In addition to getting stronger, Tropical Storm Florence is an unusually large system. The NHC reports that tropical-storm force winds extend and amazing 405 miles out to the north and east from the eye of the storm and cover an area about 700 miles across.

The Bermuda weather service will likely issue watches or warnings for the weekend, as Florence is expected to strengthen to hurricane status sometime on Saturday, Sept. 9, and pass to the near east of Bermuda early Mon. Sept. 11.



Where was Florence on Friday, Sept. 8?

On Sept. 8 at 11:00 a.m. EDT, the center of Tropical Storm Florence was located near latitude 23.0 north and longitude 59.1 west or about 420 miles northeast of the northern Leeward Islands and about 730 miles south-southeast of Bermuda. Florence was moving toward the west-northwest near 17 mph and this general motion is expected to continue during the next 24 hours with a gradual decrease in forward speed. Maximum sustained winds remain near 50 mph with higher gusts. Estimated minimum central pressure is 1000 millibars. Caption Credit: Rob Gutro -- Goddard Space Flight Center

Tropical Storm Florence Continues to Churn in the Atlantic

As of 11:00 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) on Thursday, September 7, the center of Tropical Storm Florence was located near latitude 19.8 north, longitude 53.4 west, or about 645 miles east of the northern Leeward Islands and about 1115 miles southeast of Bermuda.

Florence was moving toward the west-northwest near 8 mph and this general motion was expected to continue over the next 24 hours, before turning more northward within three days.

Maximum sustained winds were near 50 mph, although slow strengthening is anticipated as Florence moves over warm ocean waters and an environment more favorable for intensification. The estimated minimum central pressure was 1000 millibars.

QuikSCAT Scans Florence

This image from NASA's QuikSCAT satellite was captured at approximately 5:23 a.m. EDT on Thursday, September 7.
Click image to enlarge


This image from NASA's QuikSCAT satellite was captured at approximately 5:23 a.m. EDT (923 UTC) on Thursday, September 7. The image depicts wind speed in color and wind direction with small barbs. White barbs point to areas of heavy rain. The highest wind speeds, shown in purple, surround the center of the storm.

The QuikSCAT scatterometer sends pulses of microwave energy through the atmosphere to the ocean surface, and measures the energy that bounces back from the wind-roughened surface. The energy of the microwave pulses changes depending on wind speed and direction, giving scientists a way to monitor wind around the world. Image Credit: NASA/JPL -- Image Caption: NASA/RSIS, Mike Bettwy



The Atlantic's Tropical Storm Florence On the Move

At 11:00 a.m. EDT on Wed. Sept. 6, Tropical Storm Florence was gaining some strength, according to the National Hurricane Center.

Where is Florence?

At 11:00 a.m. EDT the center of Tropical Storm Florence was located near latitude 18.3 north, longitude 50.9 west or about 800 miles east of the northern Leeward Islands, and 1295 miles southeast of Bermuda. She's moving to the west-northwest near 12 mph, and maximum sustained winds are near 50 mph with higher gusts. Some strengthening is forecast during the next 24 hours. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1000 millibars.

NASA's TRMM Satellite Sees Rainfall in Florence

TRMM image of Tropical Storm Florence on September 5, 2006
Click image to enlarge


This image was taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and was taken at 20:32 UTC (4:32 p.m. EDT) on Sept. 5. This image shows the rain falling in Florence, and some areas show as much as 20 millimeters per hour (0.8 inch). At this time, Florence did not have a visible eye nor a particularly well-developed circulation that can be identified in the areas of rain. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA. Images produced by Hal Pierce (SSAI/NASA GSFC) -- Caption by Rob Gutro, NASA GSFC

Tropical Depression Six Forms and is Expected to Become Florence

GOES image showing the start of Tropical Depression 6
Click image to enlarge.


At 5:00 p.m. EDT, Sunday, Sept. 3, the sixth tropical depression of the Atlantic Hurricane Season formed about 1525 miles east of the Northern Leeward Islands, and is now tracking west.

Tropical Depression Six (TD#6) formed around 14.6 north latitude and 40.4 west longitude. As of Tues. Sept. 5, TD#6 moved west and was pinpointed at 17.7 north latitude or 45.9 west longitude, about 1030 miles east of the Lesser Antilles. TD#6 is moving west-northwest near 13 mph with maximum sustained winds near 35 mph. Estimated minimum central pressure is 1007 millibars. No change in strength is forecast in the next 24 hours. However, sometime during the day on Wed. Sept. 6, TD #6 is expected to reach tropical storm status and be named Florence. The National Hurricane Center's 5 day forecast track projects TD#6 to reach hurricane status by Saturday, Sept. 9 and track south of Bermuda.

This image of the Atlantic Ocean was created from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Geostationary Environmental Operational Satellite (GOES) on Tues. Sept. 5 at 7:07 a.m. EDT. This data was processed by NASA's GOES Project Science Office at the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. Credit: NASA GSFC/NOAA -- Caption: Rob Gutro, NASA GSFC and NHC Reports