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High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS)
 
HIRDLS Instrument detail HIRDLS is an infrared limb-scanning radiometer designed to sound the upper troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere to determine: temperature; the concentrations of O3, H2O, CH4, N2O, NO2, HNO3, N2O5, CFC11, CFC12, ClONO2, and aerosols; and the locations of polar stratospheric clouds and cloud tops. The goals are to provide sounding observations with horizontal and vertical resolution superior to that previously obtained; to observe the lower stratosphere with improved sensitivity and accuracy; and to improve understanding of atmospheric processes through data analysis, diagnostics, and use of two- and three-dimensional models.

HIRDLS performs limb scans in the vertical at multiple azimuth angles, measuring infrared emissions in 21 channels ranging from 6.12 mm to 17.76 mm. Four channels measure the emission by CO2. Taking advantage of the known mixing ratio of CO2, the transmittance is calculated, and the equation of radiative transfer is inverted to determine the vertical distribution of the Planck black body function, from which the temperature is derived as a function of pressure. Once the temperature profile has been established, it is used to determine the Planck function profile for the trace-gas channels. The measured radiance and the Planck function profile are then used to determine the transmittance of each trace species and its mixing-ratio distribution.

Winds and potential vorticity are determined from spatial variations of the height of geopotential surfaces. These are determined at upper levels by integrating the temperature profiles vertically from a known reference base. HIRDLS will improve knowledge in data-sparse regions by measuring the height variations of the reference surface with the aid of a gyro package. This level (near the base of the stratosphere) can also be integrated downward using nadir temperature soundings to improve tropospheric analyses.

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