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Benefits of Optical Communications
May 6, 2014
The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) uses a 3 meter antenna to communicate with Earth. If MRO was using optical communications, it could use a 20 centimeter aperture telescope instead.

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Optical communications systems seek to address the limitations of radio frequency communications.

First, optical communications are much higher bandwidth, meaning they can carry more mission data, allowing NASA scientists to send more data to Earth and use instruments designed for the Earth environment throughout our solar system.

Second, optical communications spectrum has not been regulated, so NASA does not need to worry about available allocations. Finally, optical communications packages are much smaller, lighter, and less power-hungry than radio frequency packages.

Optical Communications Potential

Depending on the mission application, an optical communications solution could achieve:

  • 50% savings in mass
    Reduced mass enables decreased spacecraft cost and/or increased science through more mass for the instruments
  • 65% savings in power
    Reduced power enables increased mission life and/or increased science measurements
  • Up to 20x increase in data rate
    Increased data rates enable increased data collection and reduced mission operations complexity

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Example

The image taken by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) represents what one could see from a helicopter ride at 1000 feet above the planet. While this mission is collecting some of the highest resolution images of Mars to date (it will collect 10 to 20 times more data than previous Mars missions), bandwidth is still a problem. At MRO's maximum data rate of 6 megabits per second (Mbps) (the highest of any Mars mission), it takes nearly 7.5 hours to empty its on-board recorder and 1.5 hours to transfer a single image back to Earth that the onboard High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera has taken. In contrast, with an optical communications solution at 100 Mbps, the recorder could be emptied in 26 minutes, and an image could be transferred to the Earth in less than 5 minutes.

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› Importance of optical communications
› Optical communications challenges
› Optical communications demonstrations

To transmit a one foot resolution topography map of the entire Martian surface back to the Earth, the best radio frequency system would take nine years to complete the task. The same task with laser communications can be done in nine weeks!
To transmit a one foot resolution topography map of the entire Martian surface back to the Earth, the best radio frequency system would take nine years to complete the task. The same task with laser communications can be done in nine weeks!
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Mars image taken by MRO
Mars image taken by MRO
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Page Last Updated: October 23rd, 2014
Page Editor: Thuy Mai