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Vongfong (Western Pacific)
October 14, 2014

[image-330]NASA's Aqua Satellite Sees Extra-Tropical Storm Vongfong Pulling Away from Hokkaido, Japan

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Extra-Tropical Storm Vongfong on Oct. 4 as it was moving away from Hokkaido, Japan, the northernmost of the big islands. Vongfong transitioned into an extra-tropical storm early on Oct. 4 as its core changed from warm to cold.

The MODIS or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured a visible image of Tropical Storm Vongfong over Japan on Oct. 14 at 03:15 UTC as it was southeast of the island of Hokkaido, Japan. The image showed that south of the center of circulation was almost devoid of clouds and showers, which were all pushed to the north and east of the center as a result of southwesterly wind shear.

At 0300 UTC on Oct. 14, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued its final advisory on Tropical storm Vongfong. At that time Vongfong's center was located near 29.1 north latitude and 142.9 east longitude, about 111 nautical miles (127.7 miles/205.6 km) southeast of Misawa, Japan. Vongfong was moving to the northeast at a speedy 36 knots (41.4 mph/66.67 kph). Vongfong's maximum sustained winds were near 35 knots (40.2 mph/64.8 kph).

Vongfong had transitioned into an extra-tropical system and will continue to move away from northern Japan and over the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


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[image-276][image-294]Oct. 13, 2014 - NASA Satellite Sees Wind Shear Affecting Tropical Storm Vongfong

Tropical Storm Vongfong continues to weaken as it tracks across the big islands of Japan, and NASA satellite data showed that westerly wind shear is taking its toll on the storm's structure. 

On Oct. 12 at 0500 UTC (1 a.m. EDT), the MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured an image of Tropical Storm Vongfong approaching Japan. Despite weakening to a tropical storm, Vongfong still appeared to have an eye as its northeastern quadrant blanketed the large island of Kyushu, Japan.  By 11 a.m. EDT, Maximum sustained winds had dropped to 55 knots (63 mph/102 kph). Vongfong was centered near 30.2 north latitude and 128.2 east longitude. That's about 231 nautical miles south-southwest of Sasebo, Japan. 

On Monday, Oct. 13 at 04:05 UTC (12:05 a.m. EDT), Aqua flew over Vongfong again, and the MODIS instrument aboard saw that most of the clouds and showers were being pushed to the east of the storm by wind shear. At 0900 UTC (5 a.m. EDT), Vongfong's maximum sustained winds were down to 45 knots (51.7 mph/83.3 kph).  The center of Vongfong were near 33.8 north latitude and 134.1 east longitude, about 84 nautical miles south-southeast of Iwakuni, Japan. Vongfong was moving to the northeast at 23 knots (26.4 mph/42.6 kph).

Forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) noted that the storm's low-level center was exposed to outside winds, an indication that the storm could weaken. The strongest thunderstorms (a tropical cyclone is made up of hundreds of them) were isolated in the eastern quadrant of the storm as a result of strong vertical wind shear. Winds buffeting the storm from the west were blowing as high as 50 knots, pushing those thunderstorms east of the center.

JTWC reported surface observations across Shikoku indicated light core winds. However, winds are stronger along the Shikoku coast sustained up to 35 knots (40 mph/65 kph) with isolated gusts to 56 knots (64.4 mph/103.7 kph) in the southeastern coast.  

Vongfong is expected to become extra-tropical and continue moving northeast over Japan and exiting back into the western North Pacific on Oct. 14. 

Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


[image-77][image-258]Oct. 12, 2014 - NASA Sees a Weaker Typhoon Vongfong Near Amami Oshima 

The once-powerful Category 5 Typhoon Vongfong has fortunately weakened to a barely Category 1 typhoon as it approaches the big islands of Japan. NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite and NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Vongfong on Oct. 11 and noticed the heaviest precipitation was north of the center.

NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over Vongfong on Oct. 11 at 17:23 UTC (1:23 p.m. EDT) and captured an infrared image of the storm from the VIIRS instrument. The VIIRS instrument showed that the strongest thunderstorms that stretched highest in the atmosphere were in the northern quadrant of the storm. NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Typhoon Vongfong on Oct. 11 at 04:15 UTC (12:15 a.m. EDT) and the MODIS instrument captured a visible picture of the storm that showed the eye had become cloud-filled.

On Oct. 11 at 2100 UTC (5 p.m. EDT), Typhoon Vongfong's maximum sustained winds had dropped to 65 knots (75 mph/120 kph), making it a minimal Category 1 typhoon on the Saffir-Simpson scale. It was centered near 7.4 north and 128.0 east, about 32 nautical miles (36.8 miles/59.2 kph) north-northeast of Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, Japan. Vongfong was moving to the north-northeast at 9 knots (10.3 mph//16.6 kph).

Forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center noted on Oct. 11 at 5 pm EDT, that radar showed the overall structure of the system has started to deteriorate and become elongated. The strongest winds were located on the northern side of the storm.  For current warnings and watches from the Japan Meteorological Agency, visit: http://www.jma.go.jp/en/warn/.

Over the next two days, Vongfong is forecast to speed up and become embedded in the mid-latitude westerly winds, which will cause it to spread out and look more like a frontal system as it changes into an extra-tropical storm. 

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center forecast calls for the center of Typhoon Vongfong (as a tropical storm) to track over the island of Kyushu, then Shikoku, then the big island of Honshu, on which the capital, Tokyo, is located. Vongfong's center is expected to the west of Tokyo, moving northeast, and exiting back into the northwestern Pacific Ocean south of the city of Misawa.

Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


[image-220][image-222]Oct. 10, 2014 - NASA Gathering Data on Super Typhoon Vongfong as Japan Prepares

Super Typhoon Vongfong continued on its trek north through the Philippine Sea while slightly weakening on Oct. 10. NASA's TRMM and Aqua satellites provided forecasters with cloud extent, rainfall rates and distribution and more.

Vongfong was a super typhoon with maximum sustained winds of 145 knots (167 mph) when the TRMM satellite flew over on October 8, 2014 at 2328 UTC 7:28 p.m. EDT). TRMM's Microwave Imager showed that Vongfong was producing rainfall over a large area and heavy rainfall in the eye wall (the powerful thunderstorms around the open eye) and in multiple bands of thunderstorms wrapping into the center. On Oct. 8, Vongfong was the most powerful typhoon since super typhoon Haiyan that killed over 6,000 people after hitting the Philippines in November 2013.

On Oct. 10 at 2:05 UTC, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured an image of Typhoon Vongfong in the Philippine Sea. The visible image showed that the eye had become filled with high clouds, although it maintained its symmetrical circular shape. Feeder bands of thunderstorms wrapping into the center from the north, extended over Japan's Ryukyu Islands.

On Friday, Oct. 10 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT) Typhoon Vongfong's maximum sustained winds had dropped slightly to 115 knots (132 mph/213 kph). Forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center expect winds to drop to 105 knots (120.8 mph/194.5 kph) by Oct. 11 at 1500 UTC, and 85 knots (97.8 mph/157.4 kph), by Sunday, Oct. 12 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT).

On Oct. 10 at 11 a.m. EDT Vongfong was centered near 23.5 north and 129.2 east, about 220 nautical miles (253 miles/407 km) south-southeast of Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, Japan. Vongfong was moving to the north at 8 knots (9.2 mph/14.8 kph) and generating 38-foot (11.5 meter) high seas. On Oct. 8 when Vongfong was a Category 5 typhoon, it was generating wave heights to 50 feet (15.2 meters).

Vongfong continues to slowly weaken while moving north. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expects Vongfong's center to pass just east of Okinawa on Saturday, Oct. 11, before turning to the northeast and changing to an extra-tropical cyclone over Japan.

Rob Gutro / Hal Pierce
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

 

 


[image-204]Widespread Rainfall With Super Typhoon Vongfong

Vongfong was a super typhoon with wind maximum sustained winds of 145 kts (167 mph) when the TRMM satellite flew over on October 8, 2014 at 2328 UTC. Vongfong was the most powerful typhoon since super typhoon Haiyan that killed over 6,000 people after hitting the Philippines in November 2013. In the first image TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) shows that Vongfong was producing rainfall over a large area with heavy rainfall revealed in the eye wall and in multiple feeder bands. The small animation shows typhoon Vongfong's rainfall being overlaid on a MTSAT Visible/Infrared image.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) predicts that typhoon Vongfong will gradually weaken over the next few days while heading northward toward the main islands of Japan. Image

Credit: NASA


[image-150][image-168]NASA's Aqua Satellite Tracking Super Typhoon Vongfong in the Philippine Sea

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Super Typhoon Vongfong as it tracked through the Philippine Sea on Oct. 9. Instrument aboard Aqua captured visible and infrared images of the now Category 4 Super Typhoon.

Two instruments aboard NASA's Aqua satellite provided visible and infrared data on the Super Typhoon: The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument, respectively. MODIS captured a visible image of Super Typhoon Vongfong on Oct. 9 at 04:25 UTC (12:25 a.m. EDT) that showed two concentric eyewalls with the inner eye diameter at 26 nautical miles. Forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center noted that the eye remains symmetrical with sharp outlines - typical of very intense cyclones. The AIRS data showed the overall cloud top temperatures had warmed a little since yesterday, Oct. 8, indicating that the uplift in the storm may be weakening. AIRS also showed a thick band of powerful thunderstorms surrounded Vongfong's eye.

Vongfong weakened to a Category 4 typhoon on the Saffir-Simpson scale on Thursday, October 9, with maximum sustained winds near 130 knots (149.6 mph/240.8 kph), down from a Category 5 typhoon on Oct. 8. Forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center predict slow weakening over the next several days.

Vongfong was centered near 20.6 north and 129.5 east, about 384 nautical miles south-southeast of Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, Japan. It is moving to the north-northwest at 7 knots (8 mph/12.9 kph) and generating 44 foot (13.4 meter) high seas. For warnings and watches, visit the Japan Meteorological Agency website at: http://www.jma.go.jp/en/typh/.

Vongfong is forecast to continue moving north through the Philippine Sea and is expected to pass just to the east of Kadena Air Base, then track over Amami Oshima before making landfall in Kyushu and moving over the other three big islands of Japan. Residents of all of these islands should prepare for typhoon conditions beginning on October 10.

Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

 


[image-114][image-132]Oct. 08, 2014 - Two NASA Satellites Get Data on Category 5 Super Typhoon Vongfong

Two NASA satellites provided data on clouds, rainfall and the diameter of the eye of Super Typhoon Vongfong as it turned north in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean.

Typhoon Vongfong formed on October 2, 2014 southeast of Guam. Typhoon Phanfone, that recently pummeled Japan, formed near the same area in the western Pacific Ocean.

Vongfong had wind speeds of about 120 knots (138 mph) when the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission or TRMM satellite flew above the intensifying typhoon's eye on October 7, 2014 at 0800 UTC (4 a.m. EDT). TRMM's Precipitation Radar (PR) showed that powerful storms in Vongfong's eye wall were producing very heavy rainfall. TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) show that multiple rain bands spiraling into Vongfong were also dropping rain over a large area.

On Oct. 8 at 02:15 UTC (Oct. 7 at 10:15 p.m. EDT), the MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured a visible image of Super Typhoon Vongfong's wide cloud extend and the storm's wide circular eye. 

On Oct. 8 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT), Vongfong had maximum sustained winds near 145 knots (167 mph/268.5 kph) making it a Category 5 Super Typhoon on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. It was centered near 18.7 north and 130.7 east. It was centered about 510 nautical miles (586 miles/944.5 kph) south-southeast of Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, Japan. Vongfong was moving to the north at 7 knots (8 mph/13 kph). It was creating extremely rough seas in the Philippine Sea, with wave heights to 50 feet (15.2 meters).

According to the U.S. Kadena Airbase, on Oct. 8, a combined Japanese-U.S. Air Force rescue team recovered the body of the third Airman who had been swept out to sea on Oct. 5 from Typhoon Phanfone.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center predicts that Vongfong is predicted to weaken slightly while moving toward the islands of southern Japan.

Rob Gutro/Hal Pierce
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

 

 

 

 


[image-87]Oct. 07, 2014 - NASA Eyes Super typhoon Vongfong 

Typhoon Vongfong strengthened into a Super typhoon on Tuesday, October 7 as NASA's Aqua satellite passed overhead.

On Oct. 7 at 0429 UTC (12:29 a.m. EDT) the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder called AIRS that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured cloud top temperature data on Super typhoon Vongfong. AIRS data very strong thunderstorms circling Vongfong's clear 27 nautical-mile wide eye. Those cloud top temperatures were colder than -62F/-53C indicating that they were high in the troposphere and capable of generating heavy rainfall. The bands of thunderstorms circling Vongfong appeared symmetric on satellite imagery.

At 11 a.m. EDT on Oct. 7, Vongfong's maximum sustained winds were near 135 knots (155.4 mph/250 kph) making it a strong Category 4 Typhoon on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale. Vongfong's center was located near latitude 17.5 north and longitude 133.6 east. That's about 649 nautical miles (747 miles/1,202 km) southeast of Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, Japan. Vongfong is moving toward the west at 11 knots (12.6 mph/ 20.3 kph) 

Vongfong is creating massive ocean swells with seas to 47 feet (14.3 meters), according to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC).

JTWC forecasters expect Vongfong to continue tracking to the west until it runs into a trough or elongated area of low pressure sometime on Oct. 9 that will turn it to the north. By Oct. 12, the JWTC expects the center of Vongfong to be near the Japanese island of Amami Oshima. Kadena Air Base and Amami Oshima should prepare for typhoon conditions.

Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


Oct. 06, 2014 - NASA Sees Typhoon Vongfong Leaving the Mariana Islands

[image-51]Typhoon Vongfong has exited the Mariana Islands. Now, as the island of Iwo To begins recovery from Typhoon Phanfone, NASA's Aqua satellite is eyeing Typhoon Vongfong over 1,000 miles south of Iwo To. Although Vongfong is expected to turn north toward Iwo To, it is forecast to stay west of the island on its track.

On Oct. 6 at 0347 UTC (Oct. 5 at 11:47 p.m. EDT) the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder called AIRS that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured cloud top temperature data on Vongfong. AIRS data showed strongest thunderstorms within the typhoon circled the center and were as cold as -62F/-53C, indicating that they were high in the troposphere and capable of generating heavy rainfall. Vongfong appeared as a large storm on AIRS imagery and at the time of the image, it was moving west of the Mariana Islands.

Typhoon Vongfong had maximum sustained winds near 90 knots (103.6 mph/ 166.7 kph) on Oct. 6 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT). It was centered near 16.8 north latitude and 138.9 longitude, about 886 nautical miles (1,020 miles/1,641 km) southeast of Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, Japan. It was moving to the northeast at 21 knots (24.1 mph/38.8 kph). The typhoon is generating very rough seas, up to 32 feet (9.7 meters) high in that region of the western North Pacific Ocean.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center forecast calls for Vongfong to continues tracking west-northwest until Oct. 8, when it is expected to turn to the north (when it is expected to encounter an elongated area of low pressure) and head toward the east of island of Minami Dalto Jima, Japan.

​Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland

 


Oct. 3, 2014 - NASA's Terra Satellite Sees Birth of Tropical Storm Vongfong in Western Pacific

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NASA's Terra satellite spotted the birth of Tropical Storm Vongfong in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean on Oct. 3. Vongfong is the nineteenth tropical storm of the Northwestern Pacific typhoon season.

The MODIS or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument that flies aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured a visible image of Tropical Storm Vongfong on Oct. 3 at 00:30 UTC (Oct. 2 at 8:30 p.m. EDT). At the time of the image, the center of Tropical Storm Vongfong was located just to the northeast of Pohnpei, one of four states in the Federated States of Micronesia. The image showed that Pohnpei was covered by Vongfong's southwestern quadrant.

Forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center noted that animated enhanced infrared satellite imagery showed fragmented bands of thunderstorms wrapping into the slowly-consolidating low-level circulation center. There was also a weak eye feature seen in microwave satellite imagery.

On Oct. 3 at 1500 (11 a.m. EDT) Tropical Storm Vongfong had maximum sustained winds near 40 knots (46 mph/74 kph) At that time, Vongfong's center was near 9.1 north latitude and 157.0 east longitude. The center of Tropical Storm Vongfong was located about 786 nautical miles (904 miles/1,456 km) east-southeast of Saipan. Vongfang had tracked west-northwestward at 11 knots (12.6 mph /20.3 kph).

Vongfong is expected to continue moving west-northwestward through Micronesia, toward the northern Marianas islands. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expects Vongfong to gradually intensify to a typhoon as it moves north of Guam on Oct. 6.
 

Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.

NASA's Terra satellite captured this visible image of Tropical Storm Vongfong in the western Pacific Ocean on Oct. 3 at 00:30 UTC.
NASA's Terra satellite captured this visible image of Tropical Storm Vongfong in the western Pacific Ocean on Oct. 3 at 00:30 UTC.
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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MODIS image of Vongfong
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Typhoon Vongfong on Oct. 11 at 04:15 UTC (12:15 a.m. EDT) as it was approaching Japan's big islands.
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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This is an astronaut photo of Supertyphoon Vongfong taken from the International Space Station on Oct. 9, 2014.
This is an astronaut photo of Supertyphoon Vongfong taken from the International Space Station on Oct. 9, 2014.
Image Credit: 
NASA JSC/ISS
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Typhoon Vongfong
NASA's Aqua satellite gathered infrared data on Vongfong on Oct. 6 at 0347 UTC, reading cloud top temperatures. Strongest storms, coldest cloud tops appear in (purple).
Image Credit: 
NASA JPL, Ed Olsen
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Supertyphoon Vongfong
NASA's Aqua satellite gathered infrared data on Super typhoon Vongfong on Oct. 7 at 0429 UTC (12:29 a.m. EDT) reading cloud top temperatures. Strongest storms, coldest cloud tops appear in (purple).
Image Credit: 
NASA JPL, Ed Olsen
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MODIS image of Vongfong
On Oct. 8 at 02:15 UTC (Oct. 7 at 10:15 p.m. EDT), NASA's Terra satellite captured this view of the wide circular eye in Super Typhoon Vongfong in the Philippine Sea.
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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TRMM image of Vongfong
NASA's TRMM Satellite saw powerful storms in Vongfong's eye wall were producing very heavy rainfall and multiple rain bands spiraling into Vongfong were also dropping rain over a large area.
Image Credit: 
SSAI/NASA, Hal Pierce
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MODIS image of Vongfong
The MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured this visible image of Super Typhoon Vongfong on Oct. 9 at 04:25 UTC (12:25 a.m. EDT as it moved north through the Philippine Sea.
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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AIRS image of Vongfong
The AIRS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured infrared data on Super Typhoon Vongfong and showed powerful thunderstorms (purple) circled the center in a wide band on Oct. 9, 2014.
Image Credit: 
NASA JPL, Ed Olsen
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TRMM gif of Vongfong
Image Credit: 
NASA
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MODIS image of Vongfong
On Oct. 10 at 2:05 UTC, NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of Typhoon Vongfong that revealed the eye had become filled with high clouds, but remained symmetrical. Feeder bands of thunderstorms wrapping into the center from the north, extended over Japan's Ryukyu Islands.
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard
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TRMM Image of Vongfong
On Oct. 8, NASA's TRMM Satellite saw that Vongfong was producing rainfall over a large area and heavy rainfall around the eye and in multiple bands of thunderstorms wrapping into the center.
Image Credit: 
NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
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Suomi NPP Image of Vongfong
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over Vongfong on Oct. 11 at 17:23 UTC (1:23 p.m. EDT) and saw the strongest thunderstorms were in the northern quadrant of the storm.
Image Credit: 
NRL/NASA/NOAA
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Aqua image of Vongfong
On Monday, Oct. 13 at 04:05 UTC (12:05 a.m. EDT), Aqua flew over Vongfong and saw that most of the clouds and showers were being pushed to the east of the storm by wind shear.
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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MODIS image of Vongfong
On Oct. 12 at 0500 UTC (1 a.m. EDT), the MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured this image of Tropical Storm Vongfong approaching Japan.
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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MODIS image of Vongfong
The MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured this image of Tropical Storm Vongfong over Japan on Oct. 14 at 03:15 UTC as it was southeast of the island of Hokkaido, Japan.
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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Page Last Updated: October 15th, 2014
Page Editor: Lynn Jenner